Terrorism Essays (Examples)

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Media's Role in the War

Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15757235


The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, Ranum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…… [Read More]

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Counter Insurgency Theory -- Afghanistan

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91294390

S. combating the current Taliban threat? David Kilcullen is the chief strategist in the "Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism" at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. In a 2006 Washington D.C. speech, Kilcullen stated that "insurgency, including terrorism," will be America's enemies' "weapon of choice" against the "unprecedented superiority" of U.S. military firepower (Kilcullen, 2006, p. 1). Citing Bill Murray's iconic film Groundhog Day, Kilcullen notes that until the U.S. masters a form of counterinsurgency that truly is effective, "we are going to live this day over, and over, and over again -- until we get it right."

Granted, Kilcullen offered his remarks nearly 5 years ago, but his context is fully up-to-date when one reviews the current lack of effectiveness of the United States' counterinsurgency strategy. For one thing, trying to institute "democratic processes" in Afghanistan without the "foundation of a robust civil society" tends to…… [Read More]

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Oklahoma City Bombing as a

Words: 1166 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 90780066

McVeigh's military background had already taught him all that he needed to know about weapons and explosives. He merely needed to obtain the proper materials and build a bomb. Some of the materials were bought and others were stolen. Then it was time to assemble the bomb. As CNN (2004) reports, co-conspirator "Fortier told the court that McVeigh had written to him in the fall of 1994, 'telling me him and Terry had decided to take some type of positive action, and he wanted to know if I wanted to help them.' Prosecutors contend Nichols and McVeigh began buying the fertilizer that was used in the Oklahoma City bomb during that period" (p. 1).

Many people saw McVeigh assembling the bomb at a nearby lake, but no one reported any suspicious activity. As the Homeland Security Newsletter explains, "McVeigh had pulled his Ryder moving van loaded with 55-gallon drums up…… [Read More]

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Watch List the Over efficacy of

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 25147312

There is Michael Hicks on the watch list for some reason; though less than ten percent of people on the watch list are actually United States citizens, apparently this Mr. Hicks is one of them (Alvarez 2010). Eight-year-old Michael Hicks from Clifton, NJ, is a different person altogether, yet he was first patted down at the airport when he was two years old and he continues to cause travel delays for his family now that he is eight and a proud member of the cub scouts simply because his name -- or really, the name of another individual that happens to have the same name as Mikey -- is "on the list" (Alvarez 2010). Because the list errs towards the side of being over-cautious, many individuals that are not under suspicion have been unduly delayed, sometimes repeatedly, and the lack of flexibility in the training and procedures of Transportation Safety…… [Read More]

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Afghanistan the Central Issue at

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12329564

It has been suggested in some quarters that negotiating with the Taliban may be a solution, but at no point has that group ever demonstrated a propensity to negotiate nor has it demonstrated the integrity to follow through on any agreements. Thus, this option is impractical.

Each of these alternatives meets at least one of the objectives, but each comes with an associated cost. The first alternative addresses the first and third objectives, but carries with it a high cost, uncertain time frame and allows for the second objective to fail. The second course of action makes the first and third unlikely to succeed, may not address the second and only partially addresses the fourth objective. It is a compromise, but a relatively poor one. The third option allows for the first option to be addressed, probably the second and maybe the fourth, but it does little to ensure the…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Perspectives on the War

Words: 6124 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22412840

Anarchy is but one aspect of the Realist paradigm. Anarchy is the impetus for all other components of the Realist theory to come into play. Elements such as power, security dilemma's, balance of power, polarity and alliances and ultimately war are all outcrops of the existence of any real centralized power and an absence of true legitimacy in the form of a well established, respected, influential central government. Each of these elements is now discussed in relation to the war in Afghanistan.

Prior to September 11th, 2001 the main source of power in Afghanistan rested in the hands of the Taliban. As Seth Jones' asserts, the Taliban's rise to power grew out of utter discontent with the government in Kabul within the tribal regions of the country. The Taliban's leader Mullah Omar successfully led a coup against the existing government in 1996 and quickly established a hard-line religious fundamentalist state…… [Read More]

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Department of Homeland Security and

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68678368

S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…… [Read More]

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FBI Has No Hard Evidence

Words: 2147 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91133601

Regardless of these facts, the media failed to put arguments such as these on the front page of the paper because of the control the Administration had on the media channels at the time. It is rather difficult to say the extent to which the independent or small town media actually covered the stories, with its details and discoveries. The internet search can prove more useful, but for the aim of the sociological research, it is not relevant for the case in point, given the fact that the internet is yet to be spread around the world and throughout the U.S. This is why the written media has a more important impact on the population.

The impact and the message sent across were crucial for the U.S. And its president. It offered the legitimacy needed to go to war in Afghanistan and then Iraq. This is largely due to the…… [Read More]

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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90959021

1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…… [Read More]

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bin laden al qaeda financing crime

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27608715

R.T. Naylor has a unique, and some might say even rogue, interpretation of bin Laden and al Qaeda. While Naylor spends the entire Wages of Crime focusing on the flows of black market and blood money, he does so within a morally relativist framework. Chapter Seven of Wages of Crime is an addendum, new to the most recent edition of the book that was originally published prior to September 11. Responding to the pressing push to apply the economist’s approach to terrorist financing, Naylor understandably adds this chapter as part of his ongoing narrative on the wages of crime. Given the tenor and themes contained in the rest of the book, it comes as little surprise that Naylor reaches the conclusion that cutting off sources of terrorist financing is an unfeasible, ineffective, and perhaps even morally inappropriate method of addressing the problem of non-state actors. In an interview with Standard…… [Read More]

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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

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Pyrrhic Defeat Theory Connections Between

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64082329

In America, the social ostracism of Muslims can feel even more acute. Many Muslims may face discrimination: feared as terrorists, they turn to terrorism. The creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the widely-publicized abuses at the Guantanamo prison, all continue to foster this sense of social isolation of Muslims. These policies may have created a more fertile environment for terrorism, just as police violations of civil liberties and racial profiling have perpetuated crime in many American cities, according to Reiman. Injustice breeds injustice. And Reiman adds, if being 'tough on crime' is so effective, why does America have such a high crime rate, despite being one of the few democratic nations in the world to still use the death penalty? (Scully 2009).

Reiman writes: "We know that poverty, slums and unemployment are sources of street crime. We know that these things are a source of crime, even if we…… [Read More]

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M-13 Gang and How it

Words: 2401 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64986942

In fact, when it comes to terrorism, strangers are, generally, the ambit of their activities.

There have been some activities, however, that have targeted innocent civilians and the motives and actions, in these cases, have ominously paralleled terrorist stratagems and motivations. A case in kind occurred in December, 2004, when an intercity bus in Honduras, Central America was intercepted and sprayed with machine gunfire and 28 passengers, mainly women and children, were killed first by the gunfire then by the assailants climbing abroad the bus and methodically executing the passengers17. The objective was a protest against the Honduran government who had recently reinstated the death penalty.

Another similarity is in their pattern of operation where, like al-Quida, they operate in a form of loose, unstructured cells that form a global dispersed network. Similarly, too, their individual ceils are devoted to similar activities and some are quite sophisticated. These include activities…… [Read More]

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International Politics the Threat of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91834848

In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.

This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the…… [Read More]

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Powers and Rights of the Constitution Institutional

Words: 3017 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 22986735

Powers and Rights of the Constitution

INSTITUTIONAL POWER: The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard (Army National Guard, 2011), though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well. This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism. This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…… [Read More]

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Law Enforcement Ethics Stigmas and

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99935116

Police officers need to understand that there exists a balance between security and the individual's freedom (Banks, 2009). Officers are also susceptible to corruption, and therefore need to understand that the causes of corruption are often identified and combated through an understanding of and respect for the justice system that is currently in place. Police officers also need to be trained properly, with a foundation in the same concepts and ideas that most Americans hold dear- that all people are created equal and deserve the right to fair and honest treatment. Only through proper training where officers can learn to see "others" as the same as them, and where these "others" become human and relatable, can a culturally sensitive and effective law enforcement body be created.


Baker, T. (2006). Police Ethics: Crisis in Law Enforcement (2nd Ed.). Springfield, IL:

Charles C. Thomas. Pp. 116.

Banks, Cyndi. (2009). Criminal Justice…… [Read More]

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Multiculture Emergency Special Problems and

Words: 2668 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 11923645

Coordinating community-wide efforts with representatives and respected leaders from each of the constituent sub-communities and populations will ensure the development of effective strategies.

Specifically, each sub-community needs to be apprised of the likelihood and risks of various types of events, including natural disasters and different terrorist attacks. Care must be taken not to cause undue alarm, but also to provide realistic and relevant information that objectively and directly assesses the situation. Providing such information without causing unnecessary fear is a delicate process even when one is familiar with the culture one is dealing with, and it is near impossible if the culture is foreign to the preparer. This is why coordination with community leaders is essential in the planning and education phases of emergency and disaster preparedness; no emergency management team could hope to develop the proper materials and information without consultation.

Coming to an understanding of the cultural and…… [Read More]

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Social and Political Problems and How it Relates to Radicalization Into Violent Extremism

Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 7812874

Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_

Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).

Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…… [Read More]

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Terrorists and Law Enforcement

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72616654

Terrorist Knows About Law Enforcement

When it comes to the knowledge terrorists have, one of the areas that has to be carefully considered is law enforcement. The more they are aware of the tactics that are used and the way people who work in that field look at the world and handle issues, they more they can find ways to get around what law enforcement can provide in how they protect the public from attacks. Having knowledge of the people who, essentially, work security for an intended target is among the best ways for terrorists to formulate and execute their plans.

Terrorists often know a great deal about law enforcement, even though they have little to no regard for the laws themselves. They have to collect and retain this knowledge, though, or they will not be able to get past the people who are sworn to serve and protect the…… [Read More]

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Israel Locked in a History

Words: 4521 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 93733109

Jews desperately sought entrance into the City of Spring, but the British stood firm on their proclamation, fearing Arab backlash. "The Nazis kill us," the Jews cried, "and the British won't let us live."

In 1945, the world discovered that its greatest fear had come true: the Nazi death camps all over Europe, ripe with the massacre of the Jewish people, cemented the Zionist call in those who lived. "Israelis developed a mind-set to never again trust their fate to others - no one gave a damn during the Holocaust - and to this day the Israelis don't like outsiders proposing 'peace plans' that threaten their security." While the Jews would never be able to forget the fear caused by intrusting their fate to others, the modern world would never forget the guilt of what amounted to letting the Jews be brutally murdered and giving them no place to go;…… [Read More]

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Regulatory Issues

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13186689

International Terrorism & Crime: Trends & linkages


Loose networks describe autonomous terroist groups that do not directly depend on state sponsorship. These networks operate covertly, using clandestine methods such as cellular lines to communicate and shield their activities from scrutiny, which makes gathering intelligence on their activities more difficult. Subgroups exploit local opportunity, allowing their leaders to simultaneously encourage terrorist activity and to deny responsibility.

The impact of the "Former Soviet Union and the Balkans"

Institutionalized corruption in regions such as the FSU and Balkans has not only domestic, but world-wide implications. For example, the Kosovo Liberation Army has used its connections with drug traffickers and international criminals to fund its paramilitary campaign against Serbia. Likewise, Serbian criminal groups helped fund militia groups in the Balkans. The Russian military has become so corrupt that many fear their participation in trafficking biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. About 200…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Group Leaders

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14526296

Terrorist Group Leaders

Tools and Techniques Used by Terrorist Group Leaders to Influence their Followers

In his article, War, Psychology, and Time, Friedman (2007) shows how Osama bin Laden employed a psychological strategy in an attempt to create a massive Islamic empire in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegration of the union provided an ideal opportunity for bin Laden to demonstrate to the world that America was actually weak and could be severely hurt. For bin Laden, the Muslim world "suffered from a psychology of defeat" following America's triumph over the Soviet Union and it was therefore important for Muslims to show their might and create terror (Friedman, 2007). The use of psychology to advance terrorist ideologies is not limited to bin Laden and al Qaeda. Indeed, leaders of terrorist groups capitalize on psychological techniques to recruit and influence their followers (Victoroff, 2005). This paper…… [Read More]

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Muslim Americans and the Impact of September 11th

Words: 3945 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59788510

Immigration and the Muslim Population

9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…… [Read More]

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Response of Federal Government to Protect Americans From Attacks Targeting Civilians

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26987544

Federal Government Response to Protect Americans From Attacks Targeting Civilians

With the rise of the Islamic state, many more people are becoming aware of global Islamist terrorism. The group's ability to carry out attacks on Western capitals is also causing concerns among security policymakers all over the world (Usher). One of the key objectives of America's national policy is to make Americans less vulnerable to terrorism and to deter terrorist attacks both home and abroad. The federal government has put in place several measures to achieve this objective (Patel). The best defense strategy is offense. The government knows this as it has come up with initiatives to prevent radicalization of American youths and thus preventing attacks that could have been carried out by such youths, had they been turned into terrorists.

Preventing VERLT (Violent Extremism and Radicalization that Lead to Terrorism), is something that requires a multiagency approach. The Justice…… [Read More]

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Has the Creation of DHS Had a Positive Benefit

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45780226

Homeland Security

It is difficult to assess whether the creation of the Department of Homeland Security has been effective in protection national security. The most obvious issue is that there are a lot of variables at play, and "protecting national security" is a hopelessly vague concept that would have to be operationalized before making such an assessment, in any meaningful empirical way. The DHS was created in 2002 in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The prevailing sentiment at the time was that there were communication failures among different agencies that created gaps in national security, gaps that the terrorists exploited. Agencies that were rolled into DHS included the U.S. Customs Service, INS, the TSA, FEMA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the Secret Service. In that sense, DHS is an amalgam of existing resources, and the main benefit of its creation should have been improved interagency communication (DHS, 2016)

The…… [Read More]

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Niger Delta Militants

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33641621

Literature Review

The study by Tobor (2016) examines the extent to which Niger Delta militants should be classified as terrorists or as a force seeking control of resources. Tobor (2016) identifies the problem related to this study as being one in which governmental policies designed to address the situation in the Niger Delta depend upon a proper and adequate understanding of the stakeholders. The study attempts to clarify the issue by identifying how Niger Delta militants can best be described -- whether as terrorists or as militants. The classification is essential because the label impacts the way policy makers approach the situation and their view of stakeholders' objectives. Tobor (2016) expects that the findings of the study can help strategists from multinational oil firms and governmental policy makers to find solutions to support a more peaceful working environment in which all sides and stakeholders can co-exist.

Tobor (2016) clearly defines…… [Read More]

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Analyzing the Terrorist Organization

Words: 1856 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20976012

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is the largest rebel group in Colombia and has been in constant battle with the government. For the longest time, there has been an unrelenting tug of war between the government and the leftist guerillas, with peace talks and cease fires coming into the picture in recent periods. One of the main themes perceived in three of the five articles is with regard to the goals, targets and tactics of the rebel group. Terrorist and rebel groups that have the capability to transform plans into considerable actions cultivate as part of the practice, resilient ideological practicalities, that offer guidance to the incentives and strategies of the organization. More so, at the end of the day, these ideologies largely influence the selection of targets by the terrorist groups, stirred in part by whom the organization's belief considers is culpable for its objections and complaints. In…… [Read More]

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analyzing two global'security organizations

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27990757

A plethora of private firms around the world offer customized security and risk management services. TAL Global and the Wexford Group are two firms that offer some of the most comprehensive security and risk management services, strategies, and techniques, interfacing between public and private sector and wielding power in a wide range of jurisdictions. Wexford Group offers services including operational advising, law enforcement support, program management, risk assessment, operations and intelligence fusion, development and fielding, and also recruitment, assessment, selection, and training (RAST) support for government agencies and private industries. TAL Global offers airport and aviation security, emergency preparedness planning, executive protection, risk management, school safety and security, and a range of other security services within their organizational rubric. These two organizations have similar leadership structures, dividing their different duties into different departments, each with its own organizational sub-structures. Working within the laws and jurisdictions of any client context, TAL…… [Read More]

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boko haram and diffusion of innovation

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77404501

Diffusion of innovation theory refers to the spread of ideas, materials, or strategies and can be applied both to counterterrorism policies or terrorist tactics themselves. By paying attention to the patterns of diffusion, governments can make more informed counterterrorism decisions or policies. At the same time, diffusion of innovation can show how terrorist tactics spread from one group to another or how extremism spreads throughout a region.

Applied to Boko Haram, the diffusion of innovation theory can show how terrorist tactics used by one extremist group spread or how extremist ideology spreads from one region or group to another. Likewise, diffusion of innovation can help the government of Nigeria better cultivate an informed and potentially evidence-based response policy by adopting counterterrorism tactics used by other nations in similar situations. For example, Boushey (2012) shows how public policy innovations are diffused. Punctuated equilibrium is a method of diffusion in which feedback…… [Read More]

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Review and Analysis of FISA

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87794276

FISA Summary

In light of 9/11 and the aftermath, from both a victim standpoint and a reaction standpoint, there were a lot of things going on and this includes at the government level. One of those reactions was the use (or misuse) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and the granting of immunity to telecommunication companies that shared information without a warrant when it came to the sharing of information. This report shall reveal what the main and important points of FISA happened to be and what the overall viewpoint could or should be when it comes to what was granted to the telecommunication companies in light of what they did. While trying to help law enforcement is one thing, granting private consumer information with no warrant is a slippery slope and should generally not be happening.


Even with the warrantless nature of some of the searches that…… [Read More]

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The Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Words: 6077 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90828462

Shi'ism in the World & the Shiite Islamic Sect in Nigeria

Shi'ism in the World

History, Objectives & General Outlook

Shiite Muslims make up the second biggest denomination of Islam, with the biggest numbers being represented by the Sunnis. The Shiite Muslims form about fifteen percent of Muslims. However, they are dominant in the nations of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Bahrain. In addition, Muslims have a plurality in Yemen and Lebanon too (Cave, 2006). These two distinct groups within the Islam community first differed and deviated from each other following the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. The divide arose from the fact that the followers were not able to come to an agreement as to whether it was right to select bloodline successors or able leaders most capable of following and propagating the tenets of the Muslim faith (Fuller and Francke, 2000).

The Shiite community commenced during the 650s,…… [Read More]

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An Analysis of the Effectiveness of U S Cbrn Strategy

Words: 2334 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97469412

United States' Strategy for Dealing with a Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear Non-State Actor Threat

One of the major potential threats that has emerged in recent years is a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) threat from a non-state actor. In the "good old days" of the Cold War, nation-states with these capabilities were well-known to the international community and contingency plans were developed by the United States and its allies to counter any eventuality. By very sharp contrast, today, non-state actors, including most especially international terrorist groups, have increasing access to these lethal materials, and the potential for their use as a weapon of mass destruction looms large. To determine the current situation with respect to the United States, this paper provides a review of the relevant publicly available literature to identify this country's current strategy for responding to CBRN threats, a technical description of the equipment and training…… [Read More]

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Reasons for Terrorist Attacks

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62720822

Targeting Innocents

There are numerous reasons as to why terrorists deliberately target those who are considered innocent people, such as civilians and non-combatants. One can argue that the very definition of a terrorist organization is one which challenges "the peace of mind of everyday people" (Augustus & Martin, 2010), which is done effectively by targeting them. In many instances, terrorist organizations lack the resources to scale a full-fledged military assault -- such as that which typifies wars -- due to a paucity of numbers, dearth of finances, and lack of requisite hardware (weapons). In these instances, one of the most viable options for these organizations and their objectives (which are almost always political) is to make figurative 'statements' in the form of targeting innocents. There are fewer ways of expressing one's political ambitions and extremism for such causes than by destroying the lives of innocents who happen to represent the…… [Read More]

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Biggest Terror Group Threat

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28619776

Homeland Security

Over the last two decades or so, the nastiest and most active terrorist groups really have to be ISIS/ISIL and Al Qaeda. Although the former is much "younger" than the latter, they have certainly made up for lost time given what they are currently doing in the Middle East. Even so, the top question becomes which of those two groups is the most active and deadliest right now. Indeed, a case could be made for both in their own rights. Al Qaeda has had more staying power but ISIS is running roughshod over the Middle East much more so as of late than Al Qaeda has been doing anywhere. While Al Qaeda is certainly still a threat, ISIS is clearly the more clear and present danger right now.


If this question were posed a mere ten to fifteen years ago, the answer would be Al Qaeda and…… [Read More]

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Eye in the Sky Film

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94967857

The 2015 feature film Eye in the Sky addresses the ethics of modern warfare and specifically the use of unmanned devices like drones. In Eye in the Sky, the title refers to advanced surveillance drones that are used to monitor the actions of key terrorist targets. Using facial recognition, the drones help senior military officers from both Britain and the United States identify and track their suspects and plan targeted attacks. Moreover, the film shows how senior military officers perform quantitative risk assessments to minimize civilian casualties while pursuing overarching military objectives. One of the key ethical and legal issues Eye in the Sky covers relates to Constitutional rights and in particular, Fourth Amendment rights against unlawful surveillance. The film shows that Fourth Amendment rights may not apply to American citizens abroad. Eye in the Sky also shows that the war on terrorism and the USA PATRIOT Act have altered…… [Read More]

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how border'security interacts with homeland'security

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39598739

National borders are far from arbitrary; they are important demarcations between one sovereign state and another. The foundation of national sovereignty depends on each nation protecting its own border, to achieve its own homeland security goals. In the United States, homeland security goals center on protecting the nation from foreign and domestic threats. To protect the nation from threats, it is essential to prevent would-be terrorists and criminals from entering, and also to prevent hazardous goods from crossing the border. Border security prevents the illegal flow of people, and therefore protects the world from human trafficking, illegal weapons trafficking, and drug trafficking. Preventing contraband from coming in is just one of many roles the border protection services provide in the interest of homeland security. One of the functions of border patrol is the maintenance of the nation’s domestic and foreign economic policy, essentially ensuring that all goods that enter the…… [Read More]

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Non State Actors Threats and Multilateral Responses

Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97513336

Question 1:  Can all non-state actor threats be addressed unilaterally as a non-traditional threat to only one country?  Do some of these non-traditional threats span borders and require international cooperation to counter the threat?  If so, why? What problems might such cooperation bring?
Of course, it is possible for state actors to unilaterally address non-state actor threats. Whether it is advisable for state actors to unilaterally address non-state actor threats is a matter of debate. While it may be tempting to point out the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations policies as an excuse for state actors to use unilateral responses as part of their national security strategies, doing so will have detrimental effects in the long run. The reasons why unilateral action has detrimental long-term effects include undermining the trust needed for efficient and reliable intelligence sharing and resource pooling. Responses to non-state actors need to be intelligent, strategic,…… [Read More]

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Threats to the Nation's Critical Infrastructure

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87178730

Security of the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure
Many of the elements of the nation’s critical infrastructure are highly vulnerable to attacks due to remoteness (such as in the case of dams or water treatment facilities), size (such as in the case of water reservoirs) or other attributes of the facilities that can be exploited by terrorists. Because even minor disruptions in the nation’s critical infrastructure can have severe consequences for Americans, identifying these vulnerabilities and taking steps to prevent terrorist acts represents a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation concerning how water facilities and other utilities can be targets of terrorist acts together with specific examples and supporting rationale and followed by a summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
The overwhelming majority of Americans take clean, fresh water, abundant cheap gasoline and unlimited…… [Read More]

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Immigration Policy

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22956532

Immigration Policy
Immigration has always been an important part of America’s heritage. Its towns and cities are full of different cultures and peoples from around the world, pointing to the many different types of people who came to America seeking opportunity and a new home over the centuries. The early Spanish and French missionaries came in the 16th century seeking converts to Christianity. The Puritans and English followed. The Germans and Italians and Irish and Polish all came to America in the wake of Industrialization. Over time, America was host to so many different populations and groups of people that it was referred to as the melting pot in 1909 (Higgins). However, America’s approach to immigration has changed over the years—especially in the wake of 9/11. Indeed, the world seems very different from out the shadow of the fallen Twin Towers. That horrific tragedy altered the American consciousness, led to…… [Read More]

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Stopping War with other Countries

Words: 709 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69330322

Dear President Trump,
The current war(s) that the U.S. is presently engaged in (sanctions should be included as economic warfare, which means we are at war with more countries than I can count on my two hands), are a severe drain on the moral energy and financial capital of this great country (Shambaugh, 2016). Why are we wasting so much? And for what?
The ethics of war and the current U.S. responses to terrorism are opposed to one another. I was happy to see that you ended the CIA program of funding rebels in the Middle East (aka terrorists). We need more of that. Yet, your administration now plans to send more troops to Afghanistan. We are still warmongering against Iran. ISIS is really on the ropes only because of Russian and Iranian intervention—and the neoconservatives in Congress still want Assad gone. This is not about terror. After all, our…… [Read More]