Special Education Essays (Examples)

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Handling Special Education Students

Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 86145713

Establishing Consultation and Collaboration in a School

Calgary Public School Board has hired a resource teacher for an elementary/junior high school, which has 16 teachers and 325 students i.e. 150 and 175 students at elementary and junior high levels respectively. The school principal has indicated his desire to create some form of consultation and collaboration in the school. While the school has in the past referred students with special needs to special education placements in other schools, those with learning and behavioral difficulties have been removed from the resource room because they could not be placed in a district program. The former resource teacher did not work in collaboration with other teachers and stakeholders. As the new resource teacher, it's important to establish suitable measures for consultation and collaboration to help address the needs of special education students. Such a platform will help in dealing with the different cases in…… [Read More]

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Inclusion Special Education as a Concept Is

Words: 2695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64311155


Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number of students recognized as needing special services has continued to grow exponentially within the past forty years. (Macht, 1998, p. 1) The cultural awareness of the challenges and concerns of developmentally delayed students has also increased exponentially since the time when such people were secluded from society at home or institutionalized in inappropriately severe and clinical settings. Questions wavering between the mainstreaming of special needs students and insolating them in systems designed specifically to meet their needs seem to be eternal. The fundamental answers to these quests, as with most things must lie in the middle ground, where partial inclusion offers both challenged and less challenged learners the opportunities of social and educational interaction in a balanced and positive formulation.…… [Read More]

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Mathematics in Special Education

Words: 3320 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45667184

In an open-ended study of 42 teachers decided to leave with the peer assistance being a contributing factor while in another research carried out with 99 teachers, only 4 said that the peer assistance was one of the decisive factors (Billingsley et al., 1993 & 1995). Some of the factors for the variation in these studies could be the way the teachers were asked these questions (like, open-ended polls vs. questionnaires), purpose to leave or the leaving conduct was calculated, as well as the huge trial dimension distinction of the two studies.

Therefore, in light of the mentioned study conclusions, the educational institutions should treat peer assistance as a determining factor to augment preservation of the teachers as well as the school system.

Support through Induction and Mentoring

Special attention needs to be given to the upcoming teachers in this particular field, to give them confidence and a sense of…… [Read More]

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Chronic Shortage of Special Education

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30069145

For the teachers working with the 6.6 million students in special education classes this is a nearly impossible task. As the pressure increased for schools to meet "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP), and administrators see that their special education classes are dragging their schools down, that will cause administrators to put more pressure on special education teachers and the result will likely be more special education teachers changing fields or quitting their positions (Thornton, p. 234).

Factors that could help reduce the special education shortages. Meantime, Thornton offers suggestions for improving the situation in schools across the U.S. with regard to special education teacher shortages. For example, politicians, education leaders and policy makers "can take measure to alleviate, or at least minimize, the crisis" by increasing the pool of candidates for teaching certification. In other words, meet the demands of the existing special education teachers and offer incentives for teaching candidates…… [Read More]

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Issues within Special Education

Words: 1579 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89982310

Federal laws and regulations provide a framework for addressing the needs of special education students. In addition to these laws and regulations, how has literature shaped the education communities' practice of special education in schools? Support your response with a theoretical perspective.

When it comes to any matter of major compliance, there is seemingly two different realms to what happens in the field after new guidelines shape out. Indeed, there is simple compliance with the law. At the bare minimum, this is something that all teachers and administrators must follow. Anything less than that is a clear violation and thus must be remediated. However, anyone that knows about such situations knows that simple compliance with the law is not enough. There are also the ethical and evidence-based practice guidelines that are (or are not) put in force by those same teachers and administrators (Teach-Nology, 2017).

While the law serves as…… [Read More]

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Collaboration Between Special Education Teachers

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2343298

(Billingsley, 2004, p. 39)

It is clear that the development of collaborative systems that address this feeling of isolation among special education teachers would make great strides toward addressing the problem not only of attrition but also overall satisfaction when a teacher remains in the profession, despite the obstacles.

Many educators even note that the problem goes so deep that the best way to solve it is to combine the educational opportunities of general education teachers with special education teachers, so from the beginning they might create collaborations and express similarities of goals rather than differences. (Epanchin & Colucci, 2002, p. 349) (Jenkins, Pateman & Black, 2002, p. 359) the obsticels are relatively extreme in that from teacher preparation to practice special education teachers and general education teachers are separate from one another, so much so that different standards and cultures for each have developed. The need for specialized service…… [Read More]

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Teaching a Special Education Assistant Is Classified

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7333328


A special education assistant is classified as a teaching assistant in the British Columbia educational system. The definition of a teaching assistant, according to the Make a Future: Careers in BC Education Web site, is someone who provides general assistance to support teachers, students, and/or school programs (Make a Future: Careers in BC Education, 2012). In addition to the desired post of special education assistant, other teaching assistant positions include general teacher assistants, Supervision Aides, Food Program Aides, Library Aides, Science Aides, Multicultural Support Worker, Youth Care Worker, Aboriginal Support Worker, and Community School Assistants. For each of these teaching assistant positions, including special education teaching, a high school graduation is required.

The specific qualifications necessary for a special education assistant includes include certificates or diplomas from recognized college programs such as Classroom and Community Support Worker Program, Special Education Assistant Certificate, and Special Needs Worker Program (Make a…… [Read More]

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Problem Statement Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56309856

Overrepresentation of Minorities Special Education

Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education

The national debate over special education has no easy answers. On one hand, many parents of affected children want more resources catering to their children's special needs. However, the 'mainstreaming' movement, which was and is supported by many parents, stresses the need to place children in the least restrictive environment possible. There is clearly a need to balance placement in special education to promote educational success with a need for normalcy. Into this debate is the concern that minority children are disproportionately represented in special education classes, and that racist and classist assumptions may cause what would be seen as mere difficulties in non-minority children to be 'disabilities' in minority children (Shippen 2009; Rogers 2002). Ironically, greater support for special education arose as a result of the civil rights movement, out of a desire to acknowledge and support 'difference'…… [Read More]

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Professional Qualifications of Special Education Teacher Assistants

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15797371

Professional Qualifications of Special Education Teacher Assistants

Special Education is a field that continues to grow rapidly throughout the world. The 21st century thus far has seen an increased interest and attention paid to the area of Special Education. There are a variety of staff members within a Special Education facility or department within a larger facility that contribute to the well-being and education of the students. Teacher Assistants in Special Education are a part of this group. Special Education Teacher Assistants play a valuable role in the Special Education classroom experience. They often provide the assistance, additional supervision, and attention to the students that allows the teachers and other specialists to do perform their job functions successfully.

To be an effective Special Education Teacher Assistant (SETA), one must have some training and specialized knowledge regarding the types of student populations, classroom environments & procedures, as well as what kind…… [Read More]

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doctoral'special education personal reflection

Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25299165

Developing a Professional Identity
Pursuing an education specialist degree has solidified my professional identity, as I build confidence in my skill set and level of competency. I have already established myself within the field of education but have shifted focus to special education. This course has helped me to develop a professional identity as a special education teacher and one who eventually hopes to advocate and inform public policy.
Personal Philosophy and Ethics
My personal philosophy of education is based on ethical principles like equality and social justice, which is also what drove me to learn more about how I can contribute to the field of special education. As Krek & Zabel (2016) point out, educators need to be driven by overarching principles that inform their curricula and pedagogical practices. Otherwise, educators have no way of gauging their contributions to the profession or even of assessing the impact they make…… [Read More]

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History of Special Education Why

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90970455

Before IDEA "in 1970, U.S. schools educated only one in five children with disabilities, and many states had laws excluding certain students, including children who were deaf, blind, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded" from the educational system entirely (Special education and rehabilitative services, 2007, Ed.gov).

Mainstreaming special needs students reduced the social stigma of many conditions, such as mental retardation and autism, which were formally not spoken of or recognized by the wider public. This also made it easier to encourage parents to identify children who might have more minor special needs that would be helpful to address with therapy and resource room support. Now it is 'normal' for students with mild learning challenges to receive extra time on their SATs, additional tutoring, and classroom accommodations that can make significant improvements in the quality of their education.

IDEA allows for the creation of an IEP (individualized education program) that is…… [Read More]

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Teaching Special Education Students in the Classroom

Words: 1246 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12819085

Teaching Special Education Students

In the classroom, teachers are primarily responsible for ensuring that special education students are provided with equal opportunities for education. While instructors should not lower academic standards in the classroom, they should make every effort to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. By making simple adjustments, such as allowing students to record lectures or changing the format of a test, teachers can make sure that special education students do not have academic or social disadvantages.

Setting up the Classroom

In the classroom, simple changes can make a great difference for special education students. For example, by arranging desks in a manner where each student has his own personal space, as opposed to sitting in groups, special education students have less chances of being distracted.

There should be various centers in the class that provide a space for students to go when they are finished with…… [Read More]

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An indepth analysis of Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum

Words: 9575 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48996400

Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects

This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…… [Read More]

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Factors That Determine the Increasing Number of African-American Children in Special Education

Words: 4428 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25424527

African-American Children in Special Education Programs

The large amount of minority children, specifically African-American children, who have ended up in special education programs for students who have learning disabilities, behavioral disabilities, emotional disabilities, or mental disabilities, has remained a very strong reality even though it has been recognized for more than 20 years (Townsend, Thomas, Witty, & Lee, 1996). After looking at many of these patterns and how often they recur, it is important to look at the assumptions, beliefs, worldviews, and epistemologies that are often used by many who work in special education in order to determine what is causing the disproportionate amount of these individuals in special education programs throughout the country (Townsend, Thomas, Witty, & Lee, 1996).

This problem, being extremely persistent, is affecting large groups of African-American individuals and their families in a negative way (Townsend, Thomas, Witty, & Lee, 1996). It also affects society in…… [Read More]

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Ethical Dilemmas in Special Education

Words: 3752 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96673692

Ethical Dilemmas in Special Education

The ethical issues involved in special education are manifold. In many cases, the students are unable to perform certain activities unimpaired, and in many cases they will not ever attain a legal majority or emancipation. This already puts the educator in a more proprietary position than the mere invocation of in loco parentis could ever hope to capture.

Yet this seems to point toward a greater degree of potential paternalistic condescension on the educators part, something which we might consider as a particularly bitter irony about the state of special education overall, based on the origins of the present system of special education in America as being among the legal and educational reforms prompted by the Civil Rights movement inititated by African-Americans in the 1950s and 1960s. Congress' 1975 passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children act would remedy the earlier shocking statistic that…… [Read More]

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NCLB and Special Education No

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89714939


In addition to the highly qualified mandates of NCLB there are also requirements to use research-based education practices over effective-based education practices.

The different levels of ability combined with the various qualifiers of special education students present a difficulty in determining the best course of research-based learning. In addition the ability to track and report such learning becomes difficult at best, impossible at worst.

The Issue

Given the wide spectrum of students that qualify for special education services there is a demonstrable difference in the services they are provided.

The students in special education today, receive a combination of education instruction. When they are able to appropriately benefit and learn in a mainstream environment the federal government dictates that they do. If their particular disability provides the need for accommodations to that mainstream education, such as oral testing, or un-timed lessons the school has provided that as well through…… [Read More]

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Teaching Strategy for Special Ed Special Education

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32469928

Teaching Strategy for Special Ed

Special Education Standard

Direct instruction is the most widely-used teaching strategy, although it has become controversial in recent years. Critics argue that it limits the creativity of good teachers and provides a crutch for poor ones (What is direct instruction? 2011). It is a teacher-centered approach that relies on structured lesson plans, offering little or no variation and no opportunity for discussion or active participation. The effectiveness of direct instruction has been demonstrated widely but it can be a poor choice for students with disabilities who would benefit from another approach.

What is Direct Instruction?

"Direct instruction is a theory of education which posits that the most effective way to teach is by explicit, guided instructions" (What is direct instruction? 2011). Although it is the oldest form of instruction, it gained attention in the 1980s when implemented in the schools of inner-city Baltimore. Instruction was…… [Read More]

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Physical Education General Education & Special Education

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28480937

Physical Education

General Education & Special Education Dance

Socialization is a key part of personal and professional success in the 21st century. The adolescent period especially can be influential with regard to an individual's social development and social intelligence. People who develop healthy social behaviors during adolescence & early adulthood practice and refine them as adults. Effective and meaningful socialization does not occur purely by accident; there is an art, skill, and a science to socialization. The paper proposes to create a dance or appropriately aged social event for the students, staff, and parents. The research paper would be a document reflecting processes of event planning and organizational behavior. There is no reason why the party cannot be fun and memorable while also performing some kind of academic, intellectual, and/or social function as well. Therefore the proposed social event will be a leisure activity with some relative structure, direction, or…… [Read More]

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Teacher Burnout in Special Education Cause and Effect and Possible Solutions

Words: 6661 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37378178

Special Education Teachers

Special Education Vacancies

Recruitment, Hiring, and Retention

Barriers to Hiring

Barriers to retaining special education personnel.

Incentives used to improve retention.

Recommendations to Improve Recruitment and Retention

Adequate Supply of Special Education Professionals


Teachers today are subject to more stress than ever. Increasing certification requirements, re-certification, assessments, federal standards, demanding children, apathetic parents and an unsupportive administration are just the tip of the iceberg. Special education teachers have special circumstances. While other schoolteachers have some teachers who don't want to learn, special ed teachers are charged with the task of teaching to students who have difficulty learning, whose behavior problems are associated with an illness or handicap, whose needs for special attention are great. Teacher burnout is on the rise, and it's no wonder. This study will examine existing sources as well as conducting a survey of a sample population to assess the primary causes of…… [Read More]

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Adaptive Abilities Special Education Dunlap Breaks Down

Words: 802 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20828111

Adaptive Abilities

Special Education

Dunlap breaks down adaptive abilities in children into three primary categories: motivation, socio-emotional skills, and self-care or self-help skills. All of these skills are necessary for healthy and all around development in children. For children with special needs, developing these skills and maintaining them at moderate levels can be challenging, depending on the nature of the conditions that hamper their learning. This paper will consider these skills outlined by Dunlap with respect to problems children with special needs have and to suggest approaches to intervene with such difficulties.

Motivation, as Dunlap (2009) explains it, includes a number of activities. These activities may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Motivational activities include self-regulation with respect to behavior and choices. It also includes behaviors that demonstrate movement toward autonomy. One very fundamental objective of child rearing and education is to develop children who grow into self-reliant, independent, functioning adults. Therefore…… [Read More]

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Assessment and Special Education

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 84617524

Special Education

Assessment Options

There were a number of eminent points and observations regarding the methodology of assessment utilized within Maryellen Weimer's article, "Making exams more about learning," which initially appeared in The Teaching Professor in 2011. This article essentially functions as a case study in which an undergraduate instructor, Thomas Smith, employed a number of unusual methods to assist his students with the process of assessment. Among the measures that Smith adopted was grading the examinations students took individually with each student, as well as allowing them access to previous examinations on the same topic. While analyzing Smith's methodology, the author makes note of both positive and negative points that can aid additional instructors who want to incorporate some of Smith's techniques in the future. The overall effect is that readers and pedagogues are able to get a practical, compressive overview of alternate assessment methods that can easily be…… [Read More]

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Evolutions in Special Education

Words: 1416 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62898900

Evolution of Special Education: Pre-1950s to Present

Special Education Evolutions

Special reduction has made tremendous evolutions since its inception. To effectively understand the current state of special education in public education, it is necessary to consider the full trajectory and how the perspectives on special education have developed over the years. The first special education programs were target at "at risk" children who primarily resided in urban slums and ghettos after a public education was made compulsory in the United States. They taught manual skills such as carpentry or metal work while other programs focused on teaching moral lessons to minorities. Later, special education began to focus more on children with disabilities. Although there were students that had physical and mental disabilities in the nineteenth century, making specific provisions for the inherent challenges that these students faced did not became a common educational priority until the 1940s. Since this time,…… [Read More]

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Why Are There'so Many Black Males in Special Education

Words: 4033 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 41809351

mixed research solution to help explain just why there are so many black males in special education. The researcher supported the research questions by utilizing article, journals, observational researches, and statistical data to greatly assisted in demonstrating the final resulst of the study. The articles and journals can give a reason of the quantitative variables - for example learning styles, referral process; I.Q. testing, cultural diversity, insufficient early intervention plan, and poverty are influential in the classification of young black males as special education candidates. Participants who will remain active in the research will undoubtedly be students who range from grades K-12. Statistical data is going to be used to exhibit how African-American males signify nearly all students in the special education structure understanding the fact that they're half the normal commission of the student populace. The information will exhibit how African-American males are plagued with racial inequality and racially…… [Read More]

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Failure of Special Education the

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68137283

Therefore teachers are being confronted with a variety of disabilities and working with them through the narrow knowledge of their training based on one particular focus. Certified special education teachers are in great demand, and many are forced to work out of their range of expertise in order to fill broader positions.

Today's presidential administration has taken notice of the failure to get every special needs student taken care of to the best of the teacher's ability. Legislation is currently in the works to help perfect the training and range of special education teachers. In the article "A Quality Teacher in Every Classroom: Training for Teachers Serving Students with Disabilities," the White House official website explores recent government implemented policies, such as the State Improvement Grants for Students with Disabilities. This legislation is geared to improving academic environment which would contribute to special needs students still meet "the same challenging…… [Read More]

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Leadership in Special Education the

Words: 1077 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58620437

..concerns exist that (a) time will be taken away from the development of functional or vocational skills, (b) referral rates will increase, - students will be exempted or omitted from the accountability system" (Defur, 2002). These are some of aspects that the leader has to be aware of in the implementation of policy and in practice.

Possibly the most important aspect to consider is the actual quality of leadership that is required. One of the most significant facets of leadership in this particular educative environment is the development of a positive school and educative culture in which facets of special education - and their integration into the mainstream - can be addressed. Studies note that "...a positive school culture and school improvement go hand in hand" (Apted et al. 2007).

The leader, by providing a collaborative and creative educational and environment, can be instrumental in aiding and facilitating necessary changes,…… [Read More]

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Gender Differences in Special Education

Words: 3314 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27460021

Behavior and Bias in Access

Two-thirds of all students receiving special education in the United States are boys and gender-based behavioral differences and gender bias are behind it (Rousso, 2003). Girls need to show more significant levels of disability than boys to receive service. When they do, they are assigned to more restrictive educational environments than boys. All available data show that women and girls with disabilities do not do as well as disabled men and boys and non-disabled women and girls. UNESCO studies found double discrimination towards women and girls with disabilities in all spheres, including employment, income level, health care, marriage and parenting. They are considered sick, helpless, immature, incompetent, dependent and asexual. This perception deprives them of valuable options and opportunities. A comprehensive study revealed that while students with disabilities had limited access to math and science courses, skills and knowledge, girls must content with steep obstacles…… [Read More]

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Facilitating Collegial Groups for Special Education

Words: 1454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31435915

Collaboration and Resolution in a Special Education Class

Collaborative groups are basic to the provision of special education services. Professional collaboration eases the problem solving that is inherent to serving students with disabilities (Brownell, et al., 2006). Special education teachers and specialists possess knowledge and skills that are not resident in the population of general education teachers -- unless they have received training in special education techniques and strategies (Brownell, et al., 2006). The literature indicates that both general and special education teachers benefit from opportunities to collaborate, but sustainability research indicates that teachers benefit in different ways when they institute collaborative practice (Brownell, et al., 2006). Teachers who adapt to the demands of collaborative practice and adopt strategies that have been acquired through collaboration evidence differences in the following areas: Adapting instruction, curriculum, pedagogy, student-centered instruction, student management, and reflection on instruction (Brownell, et al., 2006).

Stakeholders in Collaborative…… [Read More]

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Direct Instruction The Effect on Special Education

Words: 2685 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32104831

Direct Instruction: The Effect on Special Education Students

Direct Instruction Overview

Direct instruction is an increasingly popular and supported education technique that has been utilized for several years. Direct instruction has historically been used as a method of instruction for special education students (Goral, 2001). Many educators have claimed that direct instruction has helped students regardless of their learning capability or any defined learning disabilities (Goral, 2001). Direct instruction is based on the idea that a teacher led classroom that involves active participation and well choreographed lesson plans and learning instruments is a more effective learning environment than a less involved or student led learning situation.

Kozloff (2002) a firm proponent of direct instruction suggests that it provides an effective method for instruction by helping students learn to organize and activate knowledge. Further Kozloff suggests that direct instruction shifts the emphasis of teaching to mastering and acquiring proficiency of tasks…… [Read More]

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Licensure as a Special Education Teacher Pre-K to 9th Grade

Words: 776 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21594064

disappointments of educational reform in recent memory has been the failure of the mainstreaming of special-education pupils. This disappointment arose because the idea of mainstreaming held - at least for some educators and families, at least for a while, such a bright promise for so many children who were markedly different from their peers. For years such children had been denied access not only to the educational opportunities available to other students but also to the social interactions that are also such an important part of the school experience. Moreover, mainstreaming seemed to often an end to some of the worst of stigmatization that children with development difficulties had been made to suffer.

However, it was very soon apparent that the promises of mainstreaming - an appropriate education for all - were illusory. Children with developmental challenges were not being adequately served in classrooms in which there were too many…… [Read More]

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Ideal Type of Special Education

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50479691

utopian school district: An overview

Individualization is the key to effective special education. That is why every child in a special education setting has an individualized education plan (IEP). The needs of, for example, a child with autism who is nonverbal are very different from the needs of a highly verbal child on the autism spectrum with social deficits. Allowing more individualized assessment and delivering more individualized treatment would be a critical component of any 'utopian' school district.

However, as well as creating individualized instruction plans for all students in their supportive environments, the larger environment of the school should also be supportive of learning differences. "Consider children with disabilities as general education children first: Special education and general education are treated as separate systems, but in fact share responsibility for the child with disabilities" and there should be more similarities between the two than differences (Peterson & Tamor 2003:…… [Read More]

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Avoiding Bias in Special Education

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48058736

Conversely, where special-needs students are included in classrooms based exclusively on their high learning capacity despite non-learning-related disabilities that should preclude them from inclusion in standard educational programming, there are detrimental consequences for special-needs students as well as their classmates (SEDL, 2010).

Ultimately, it is up to the educator responsible for conducting assessments to understand the relative significance of individual elements of mental retardation. In principle, this understanding enables them to avoid exclusion where inclusion would be more beneficial to all parties and to avoid exclusion where inclusion of special-needs students is more appropriate.


FDDS. (2002). Inclusion White Paper Funded by the Florida Developmental Disabilities

Council and Florida State University Center for Prevention & Early Intervention


Polloway EA, Patton JR, Smith TE, and Buck GH. "Mental Retardation and Learning

Disabilities: Conceptual and Applied Issues." Journal of Learning Disabilities

Vol. 30 (1997): 297.

SEDL. (2010). Inclusion: "The Pros and…… [Read More]

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Transition Education in Special Education

Words: 997 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22343804

Transition Experiences for Students with Disabilities

Several years ago I was privileged to teach students with cognitive disabilities in Korea. I taught in an after school program for high school students. As I thought about the subjects that were being taught, I realized that no provisions were made to provide opportunities for the students to interact within the community setting.

Even though most of the students were going to work in a sheltered workshop after graduation, a need existed for them to learn "community skills" such as paying for things with their own money, using public transportation, and interacting with various residents of the neighborhood. It was there that my strong belief that cognitively impaired students should have chances to engage in as many "normal" activities as possible as long as the students were not confused or upset by the situation or were subject to negative comments, etc. from others.…… [Read More]

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Early Childhood Special Education Lesson

Words: 2192 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91801311

[I also had my students write how they would say it out loud when naming it. Example: "Line AB or line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."] Below is information on how students should label rays, lines, etc.

1. Ray - the endpoint letter first, then a second point with a line ending in an arrow over the two letters, pointing to the right.

2. Point - a dot and then the point's letter.

3. Line - Two points on the line with a line with arrows in both directions above the letters.

4. Segment - the two endpoint letters of the segment with a line, no arrows, above the two letters

5. Intersecting - (AB x BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The x stands for intersects.

6. Parallel - (AB…… [Read More]

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Inclusion Special Education

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98746918

Inclusive Classrooms

Inclusion, Special Education

Inclusive Classrooms -- How Literature Helps… [Read More]

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Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of…… [Read More]

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Use of technology in the'special education classroom

Words: 3364 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30650175

Chapter 1: Introduction
The epigraph above is reflective of the views of many special educational needs teachers. Indeed, innovations in technology in recent decades have created a wide array of new opportunities for helping special needs student achieve their full academic potential. These trends are especially noteworthy today because tens of millions of young American learners are struggling with their academic pursuits due to their special educational needs. In this context, the term “special educational needs” can be defined as “children who have learning problems or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn than most children of the same age” (Special education needs, 2018, para. 2). The purpose of this grant proposal was to identify ways that special educational needs students can benefit from the introduction of technology in their classrooms based on the problem statement described below.
Statement of the Problem
According to the most recent estimates…… [Read More]

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Thirteen Categories and Its Importance in Special Education

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63996996

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - An ANALYSIS

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), U.S. states are in charge of meeting special educational requirements of students with disabilities. For ascertaining which children are entitled to services under the Act, students should first be individually and comprehensively evaluated, for free. The evaluation serves two purposes: • seeing whether the child is disabled or not, within the framework of the Act; and • acquiring a detailed understanding of the special educational services needed by the child (NICHCY, 2012). States have the authority to segregate some disabilities, among the thirteen stipulated by IDEA, into distinct categories; but determining qualification in individual categories necessitates performing of a thorough, appropriate evaluation, employing various stipulated strategies and tools for assessment. IDEA declares that children's developmental, academic, and functional information has to be obtained for aiding eligibility determination (IDEA, 2004). The best interventions for children…… [Read More]

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Funding and Budget for Special Education

Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98216829

local education plan best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA? Why?

One of the two main components of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the grant program that provides federal funding to the states ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). Under the provisions of the Department of Education, funding is provided on a per-student basis, based on total enrollment. However, additional issues such as poverty levels, are also taken into account ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). The state and local education plans can best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA by focusing on ongoing support services and statistical tracking of student performance. The fundamental requirements of IDEA…… [Read More]

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Reading Education Special Needs and Special Education

Words: 3062 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 30125059

Reading Education

Special needs and special education students have traditionally had more immediate needs in cooperative learning settings when compared to typical students. To be an effective teacher is not always as easy as telling the students to just sit-down and read. Teachers have to understand that there can be less obvious problems at hand like dyslexia, AD/HD, or English as a second language to name a few. When there are underlying issues, both the teacher and the student have to work more closely together in order to reach some desired outcome. "Teaching effectiveness is inferred from the product that was created; it is the product that is the indicator of scholarship." (Cranton, 2000)

This report aims to provide the general background information about a recently completed clinical case study. The underlying object of this case study was to assess a student with some sort of reading difficulty, set up…… [Read More]

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Childhood Special Education -- Task

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27141461

Because the coffee was still quite hot, I was afraid of burning myself. I left my coffee up on the kitchen counter rather than holding it in my hand, and I again spilled some coffee on the counter, where before I had spilled the grains. Of the already-weak cup of coffee, I lost a great deal of the hard-won beverage to 'spillage' and less than I like ended up in my cup. I felt relieved that I did not spill any coffee on my clothing, as this would have required that I remove a stain from the cloth with a nondominant hand, hardly an easy feat!

The additional 'spillage' factor was an important illustration of why children with special needs who are coping with new tasks that are difficult for them seem clumsy, and can often frustrate adults with the 'mess' they make. The mess is not necessarily the result…… [Read More]

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Developing a Personal Philosophy of Inclusion for Young Children Special Education

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 7677535

Belief Statement

Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Inclusion For Young Children, Special Education

Inclusion: Early childhood education

Belief statements

I believe that every child has a right to an education. This education must be adapted to every child's individual needs. These needs encompass a wide range of biological, sociological, and psychological differences. Although every child is entitled to an equal education, giving every child the same education is not the same thing as equality. For a child who is blind, it is necessary that the child have access to a talking book or Braille to enable him or her to comprehend the same material as his or her peers. Similarly, a child who is dyslexic or has a sensory processing disorder requires additional support to keep up with other students.

I believe that teachers must be flexible when dealing with children. Teaching is more than simply writing out a lesson…… [Read More]

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Assistive Technologies in Special Education

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24964976

Innovations in technology and calls for increased accountability have combined to create an environment in which it is reasonable to expect significant changes in education over the next several years. This paper identifies three potential issues in education, multiple assessments and evaluations, assistive technology, and assessment in special education followed by an explanation concerning why these three topics will be worthy of consideration.

Multiple assessments and evaluations

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study already provide the ability for educators to administer multiple assessments and evaluations (Scott and Bagaka 70). One of the main advantages of using multiple assessments is that it provides educators with the ability to evaluate a wide range of student progress indicators, including experiments, written assignments, portfolios and others that require the application of critical thinking skills that may not be accurately or timely evaluated otherwise (Dietel 33).…… [Read More]

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The Rules to Follow for Giving Special Education

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27784519

Ralph and Manifestation Determination

In the school district of St. Paul, Minnesota, the district's process for making a manifestation determination is the following: a parent must request a meeting with the Individual Education Program (IEP) team, which must hold the meeting no more than 10 days following the request. A meeting will also be held regardless of parental request whenever a student is suspended for at least 5 consecutive days or 10 cumulative days within a school year, a disciplinary change is effected or expulsion is considered.

The team then determines if the following stipulations are met to signify that a manifestation determination can be made. First, the team must gather data regarding evaluations of the child and any diagnostic testing that has been conducted, observations made, as well as placement information or other information that can be helpful in understanding the child's background and providing context for the setting…… [Read More]

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Fiscal Reporting in Special Education

Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42188368

Fiscal Reporting in Special Education

The element of fiscal reporting constitutes a key component of special education program delivery. It plays a vital role in the acquisition and supplying (after completing centralized accounting) valuable information for supporting decisions and justifying financial resource utilization. The value of information may be proven through its content: i.e., resources' nature and the means adopted for raising them, resource allocation according to approved budget provisions, and their utilization (Cenar, 2011)

Successful special education management necessitates effective information utilization. Information pertaining to special education spans from student and staff data to program- and school- level financial data. An inclusive education data system will be able to offer the following benefits:

Data can be utilized in the decision-making process;

It can used for targeting particular improvement areas;

Disaggregated data can be utilized for examining wide-ranging aims;

Data can be employed for timely evaluation of special education program;…… [Read More]

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Diabetes and Special Education in School

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38498412

Diabetes and Special Education in School

Characteristics and Definition of Diabetes

The Centers for Disease Control 2005 survey reports that 21 million individuals or 7% of the total U.S. population have Diabetes. Furthermore, it is reported that one in every four to six-hundred students under the age of 20 years will have diabetes. (Belson, 2010) Diabetes is a "chronic metabolic disorder that results from failure of the pancreas to produce insulin (Type 1) or from insulin resistance with inadequate insulin secretion to sustain normal metabolism (Type 2)." (American Diabetes Association 2003; Centers for Disease Control, 2002 in: Getch, Bhukanwala, and Neuharth-Pritchett, 2007, p.1)

Characteristics of Diabetes

Children with diabetes have two problems that teachers must understand:

(1) Hypoglycemia; and (2) Hyperglycemia. (Children With Diabetes.com, 2010)

Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar and hyperglycemia is high blood sugar. Children with low blood sugar are known to have erratic behavior or alternatively act…… [Read More]

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Looking Into Early Childhood Special Education

Words: 819 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 96451037

Children's Books On Development Of Children's Self-Concept, Dealing With Life's Challenges and/or Have Characters With Disabilities

This list has been sorted by the books' readability levels;

AC = Adult Read to Children. Books for Pre-K to Grade 3, ranging from 10 to 30 pages, with illustrations; typically designed for parents to read to their children (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).

JE = Juvenile Easy Reader. For children who are beginning to read on their own, such as those in Grades 1-2; ranging from 30 to 80 pages; illustrations are included to break up the text (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).

JF = Juvenile Fiction. Children's fiction or chapter books; for children in Grades 2-6; ranging from 60 to 200 pages, the books are generally divided into chapters, contain fewer illustrations, and have more complicated plots or concepts than either AC or JE books (Teacher Vision, 2000-2016).

Andy and His Yellow Frisbee

Publisher: Woodbine House,…… [Read More]

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Analysis of Inclusion in Special Education Curriculum

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45085666

inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).


The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…… [Read More]

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Culturally Sensitive Special Education

Words: 2682 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86248730

education and the usual plight of special education students, both identified and yet-to-be identified, the role of the educational diagnostician is one of great import and significance. Known by several different names, the educational diagnostician is charged with the diagnosing and identification of leaning problems. The focus of this report will be the work of the educational diagnostician in the elementary school system and framework. In addition to the educational diagnostician himself or herself, there is also the involvement and partnership of other employees in the elementary school framework including teachers at the elementary school and other school employees such as counselors and administrators. While some may hold that the role of the educational diagnostician is not all that complicated, this could not be further from the truth as the identification of problems as well as dealing with and working with the same alongside other school employees, the parents of…… [Read More]

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Helping Special Education Kids

Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38339835

Responsiveness to Intervention

Delivering adequate resources to children with learning differences is not some haphazard undertaking. On the contrary, it requires a predetermined plan and the sufficient combination of a number of different entities in order to achieve success. A Responsiveness To Intervention (RTI) plan is necessary to adequately combine a variety of different resources and approaches to aiding a student with his or her particular learning difference. RTI plans involve service delivery on a variety of levels to account for the critical phases of development in the lives of students which include not just their cognitive developments, but their emotional and even social development as well. These plans require sufficient coordination of those resources in a streamlined approach so that ultimately, the student is able to benefit from them. This document will create a service-delivery model for a fictional special education student named Justin. Justin appears congenial on the…… [Read More]

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Planning for Special Education Needs

Words: 901 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44584007

videos that pertain to the Individualized Education Plan, or IEP. The IEP is part of the wider programs known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The IEP is a legal document that covers a specific child and mandates how people that come in contact with that child will act and behave when the child is present and/or learning. This brief report will cover a few aspects of the IEP and its process including whether the school leader needs to know the IEP development process, how a school leader assists parents and staff in the IEP development process, which stakeholder(s) have the most authority during the IEP development process and the upsides or downsides of having all stakeholders being a part of the IEP development process. While finding a singular solution and plan from the input of a whole group can be difficult,…… [Read More]

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Assessment and Special Education

Words: 1401 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 1999614

SPED Assessment

In 2002 the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) made changes to their manuals regarding the assessment of mental retardation (MR). The revisions were designed to affect changes in professional practice regarding assessment of MR, public policy, and the science and understanding of MR. Key in this change was the attempted change from the MR term to a more politically correct term Intellectual Disability. Assessment was to consider both IQ scores and adaptive behavior (AB) which was to be termed "adaptive skills as well as the individual's cultural background and in the context of associated strengths. Instead of following a deficit model of explanation the goal was to follow a needs model. The definition of intellectual disability then includes three core criteria: significant impairment of intellectual functioning (defined by decreased IQ scores), significant impairment of adaptive/social functioning and, onset before adulthood. Polloway et al. (2009) looked at the…… [Read More]

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Special Ed Philosophy a Special

Words: 1433 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13632993

Gerl (2010) points out in his advocacy of metaphysics as a way of approaching the philosophy of special education that this helps to construct a legal perspective which is evolving in a way that is consistent with the evolution of ethical perspectives of human dignity, individual rights and the treatment of those with disabilities. While this strikes as relevant, Gerl even concedes that one may not be suited for the metaphysical philosophy of special education law "if a lack of ambiguity appeals to you." Indeed, in a sense, traditional civil rights case law in combination with the ideals delivered by an axiology discourse should serve to effectively address the need for the evolution in ethical perspective. And quite simply stated, the philosophical underpinnings of Logic are problemetized in the educational context by the sheer force and divergence of opposing political, ideological and economic priorities. Therefore, the idea of constructing logical…… [Read More]

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Special Ed Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24953568

Special Ed

Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in Special Education

Special Education is intended to function as a powerful resource for giving extra attention, assistance and educational resource to those with severe and irreparable learning deficiencies. However, there is also a danger that situational learning deficits may be perceived as deficiencies, leading to the incorrect classification of young students as special needs. Where improperly classified, the results to one's learning potential and academic advancement may be disastrous. This is why the disproportionately high representation of minorities in American special education contexts is so troubling. As the discussion here will show, this disproportion suggests that there may be some cultural, sociological and global forces that are responsible for an unequal placement of minorities in special education settings.

Current Theories:

One of the most compelling theories in circulation in the literature is that of the 'normal child.' As identified in the research by…… [Read More]

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Special Ed Since the 1990s

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21479184

Personal Beliefs

Our personal beliefs are that showing educators and parents' specific tactics to use when interacting with special needs students will improve their ability to learn. In the future, this will prepare them for the challenges they will face on their own. Once this happens, is when the student has a good chance of living an independent and productive life.


To determine what technique are most effective in reaching out to students requires conducting a literature review. According to the research that was conducted, there are specific skills and tools required to help special needs students. Buell (1999) found that the federal government has implemented a comprehensive program in teaching educators about how to deal with these challenges called the Comprehensive System of Personal Development. This protocol is scientifically-based math and reading strategies to improve learning comprehension in these students. When this is used in its proper context,…… [Read More]

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Special Ed Most of the

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88512475

Regular educators are also frustrated with the way NCLB penalizes schools that have high numbers of special education students. Even when those schools are serving special education students well enough to become local "magnets" because their good programs, the government can penalize them using the MCA-II and similar tests (Caputo 2006).

Other issues also complicate special education in the inclusive classroom. Regular educators are addressing a more diverse student body than ever before. Even within the rubric of "special education," teachers are working with a seemingly infinite number of special needs. Cognitive disorders, learning disabilities that may or may not be specified, behavioral disorders, developmental disorders, and physical disabilities ranging from mild to severe -- these are just a few of the examples of how special education students may be classified in the classroom. Moreover, autism and similar disorders present added challenges. Some teachers might have identified students with special…… [Read More]

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Education in China History of

Words: 1683 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36246897

The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.

Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…… [Read More]

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Special Needs Education Briefly Discuss Trend Education

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6954509

Special Needs Education

Briefly discuss trend education special children (learning disabled.) French Revolution. What philosophic principles period education reflects?

Briefly discuss the trend in the education of special needs children (learning disabled etc.) after the French Revolution. What philosophic principles of the period did this education reflect?

The first intelligence tests were developed in France as a way of screening students' ability to function within its confines, and even today the French educational system is notable for its high degree of centralized control. Still, based upon its democratic principles, which began with the French Revolution and were formally enshrined into law during the Napoleonic period, France strove to educate all of its citizens in an equal fashion, and to make them all feel like true citizens of France. Today, in France, around 100,000 students identified as suffering from various disabilities go to special schools run by the Ministry of Health.…… [Read More]

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Education in Law Litigation and

Words: 1193 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 69869036

An astounding 72% of teachers were seen to think that parents too often take their child's side without being reasonable to what really happened from an adults' point-of-view. Additionally, many may see the chance of a lawsuit as a way to get rich quick, and therefore blow up the situation bigger than necessary for the potential of a large payment. Since this happens too often within modern practice, it is understandable how both teachers and educators alike would take a disliking of such cases.

Yet, despite these complaints, most educators and educational administrators have been seen in this research to believe that protection of children is worth the annoyance of litigation. Although many educators see lawsuits as taking a personal toll, the research overwhelmingly showed that many thought it was still necessary to have the option to sue to protect those children who have been wronged. The research presented here…… [Read More]

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Education Theories Knowledge of Learning

Words: 3781 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93366223

Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and Writing Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."

As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in Writing: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.

This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]

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Education Can Urban Inner City Regular

Words: 3366 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10018193

Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.

(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…… [Read More]