Special Education And Inclusion Essays (Examples)

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Special Education Has Changed Dramatically Gone Are

Words: 5921 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2070613

special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this point…… [Read More]

References

http://helium.vancouver.wsu.edu/~golden/techniques.htm

Teaching Techniques

Preparing Teachers for the Inclusion Classroom:

understanding assistive technology and its role in education
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Inclusion Special Education as a Concept Is

Words: 2695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64311155

Inclusion

Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number of students recognized as needing special services has continued to grow exponentially within the past forty years. (Macht, 1998, p. 1) The cultural awareness of the challenges and concerns of developmentally delayed students has also increased exponentially since the time when such people were secluded from society at home or institutionalized in inappropriately severe and clinical settings. Questions wavering between the mainstreaming of special needs students and insolating them in systems designed specifically to meet their needs seem to be eternal. The fundamental answers to these quests, as with most things must lie in the middle ground, where partial inclusion offers both challenged and less challenged learners the opportunities of social and educational interaction in a balanced and positive formulation.…… [Read More]

References

Crockett, J.B., & Kauffman, J.M. (1999). The Least Restrictive Environment Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crockett, J.B. (2002). Special education's role in preparing responsive leaders for inclusive schools. Remedial and Special Education, 23(3), 157+..

Hines, Rebecca A. "Inclusion in Middle Schools: ERIC Digest." 2003 http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=ED459000&db=eric&tg=AN.

Jenkins, A.A., Pateman, B., & Black, R.S. (2002). Partnerships for dual preparation in elementary, secondary and special education programs. Remedial and Special Education, 23(6), 359+.
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Special Education and Students With

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10289465



(4) Have participating teachers develop and lead online collaborative projects for students with emotional and behavioral disorders.

(5) Develop and maintain an online community for teachers in self-contained units where ideas, lessons, and strategies can be shared.

(6) Train staff on the concepts surrounding Positive ehavioral Intervention Support (PIS) and support teachers as they develop preventative behavioral intervention plans that utilize PIS strategies and concepts. (Rush, 2010, p.1)

Rush (2010) states that the key elements of the model were online, collaborative learning and accessible computer-based educational resources. The results are stated to have exceeded initial expectations for "changing the focus in self-contained classrooms from behavior control to academic achievement." (Rush, 2010, p.1) Not only is academic achievement up but as well it is reported that "behavior referrals are down, and teachers report improved student outcomes in all areas." (Rush, 2010, p.1)

The work of Pierangelo and Guiliani (2008) states the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pierangelo, R. And Guiliani, G.A. (2008) Classroom Management for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators. Corwin Press, 2008.

Jolivette, Kristine, et al. (2000) Improving Post-School Outcomes for Students with Emotional and Behavioral disorders. ERIC Clearinghouse. ERIC/OSEP Digest #E597. Online available at: http://eric.hoagiesgifted.org/e597.html

Salmon, Hallie (2006) Educating Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Law & Disorder. Online available at:  http://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/201/salmon%20educating%20students%20with.pdf?sequence=1 

Rush, Sharron (2010) Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbances. Knowbility. Online available at: http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
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Special Education Inclusion -- Pros

Words: 1663 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37895555

Meanwhile, paraprofessionals and special education facilitators are available in greater supply and provide considerable relief to the burdens placed upon dedicated fulltime special education professionals (Suter & Giangreco, 2009).

Whereas the traditional model of separate education for special-needs students requires that school systems rely on fulltime special educators and depends, necessarily, on their availability, that is not the case with inclusion programs. The inclusion of special-needs students within the regular curriculum allows special-needs services to be delivered by paraprofessionals instead of relying exclusively on dedicated special needs educators. Typically, special needs education paraprofessionals can deliver services to several special-needs students simultaneously instead of limiting the number of special-needs students to the same number of special needs educators available on a one-on-one basis (Suter & Giangreco, 2009)

Conclusion

It does not appear that any of the objections to the inclusion of special-needs students in the regular educational environment and curriculum stand…… [Read More]

References

Dupuis, B., Barclay, J.W., Holmes, S.D., Platt, M., Shaha, S.H., and Lewis, V.K.

(2007). "Does Inclusion Help Students: Perspectives from Regular Education and Students with Disabilities." National Association of Special Education Teachers.

Accessed online:  http://www.naset.org/782.0.html 

Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,
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Special Education - Inclusion the

Words: 12387 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51490180



In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…… [Read More]

References

Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.

Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.

Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.
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Special Education Has Been a

Words: 1912 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85494956

Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004)

Purpose and esearch Questions

The purpose of the proposed research study is to determine the effectiveness of the inclusive classroom and the best methods for increasing the positive outcome of inclusive classrooms. The questions to be answered include:

1. How do educators, parents, and others involved in the education currently view inclusion?

2. How do the views of educators affect the implementation of programs such as inclusion?

3. Are disabled students benefiting from inclusive classrooms compared to non-inclusive classes?

4. Are normal students benefiting from inclusive classrooms?

5. What educational models will be most beneficial to students in an inclusive classroom?

Hypothesis

The most destructive expectation of teachers that is harming the inclusion movement is that "Classroom teachers are expected to continue to use the existing curriculum." (King 2003) It is the…… [Read More]

References

Dybvik, C. (2004) Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms. Education Next, Winter.

Hehir, T. (2003, March) Beyond inclusion: educators' 'ableist' assumptions about students with disabilities compromise the quality of instruction. School Administrator.

King, I.C. (2003) Examining middle school inclusion classrooms through the lens of Learner-Centered Principles. Theory Into Practice.

Murphy, T.J. (1994, September 12) Handicapping education - full inclusion of disabled children in classrooms. National Review.
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Special Education What Is Special

Words: 3509 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88017095

These are the students who are suffering from sort of problem; it may be a cognitive disorder, a memory problem, a writing problem, or some sort of physical problem that does not allow him to cope with the burden of the educational system without special help and instruction, or anything else. The proponents of the exit exams also state that unless students are held to certain high standards, it would be impossible to identify or address the various inherent flaws and weaknesses in the entire system of examinations. Another advantage of the exit exam system, according to them, is that there will be an increase in the motivation levels for both students and teachers to do better and excel at the exam to the best of their abilities.

This, again, is valid only for those students who are in the normal stream of education, and not for those students who…… [Read More]

References

CA High School Exit Exam." Retrieved at http://www.suhsd.net/html/cahsee1.htm. Accessed on 11 January, 2005

Definition of Special Education" Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Special+EducationAccessed on 11 January, 2005

Goodwin, Sherry Posnick. "Students with learning disabilities campaign against high school exit exams" Retrieved at http://www.cta.org/CaliforniaEducator/v7i8/MTC_1.htm. Accessed on 11 January, 2005

High school exit examination: District and School Information Packet." (April 2000)
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Special Education Until 1975 Disabled

Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62291897

S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).

Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.

Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…… [Read More]

References

Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm

Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at  http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html 

Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html

Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at  http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
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Special Education History and Efficacy

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 776039



Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with their peers. Students may be allocated an instructional assistant to help them with their work. Some students with learning disabilities often spend time in a resource room in order to receive direct instruction. The special education team may decide that this is not the right path for a student and try a more restrictive setting known as partial inclusion. Partial inclusion refers to when a student partakes in the general education setting for part of the day but receives the bulk of their academic instruction in a resource room. Due to the severity of some student's disabilities, they may be assigned to a self-contained classroom in where they will spend at least 60% of their school day working directly with the…… [Read More]

References

Cortiella, C. (2009). The State of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from New

York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities Web site:

http://www.ncld.org/stateofld

Godovnikova, L.V. (2009). The Conditions for the Integrated Education of Children with Impaired Development. Russian Education & Society. 51(10), p.26-39.
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Special Education Director Leadership Styles

Words: 11099 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58281810

More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)

Qualitative Research Methods

Qualitative research methods are those of:

(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.

(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.

(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.

Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.

Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.

Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
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Special Education the Key Points

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90383883

Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented at the World's Fair.

In 1951, the categorization changed again, with a major section of special education called the 'slow learner' what today we refer to as 'learning disability'. Even here, this term has split into countless subcategories such as 'ADD', 'ADHD', 'Asperger's', 'learning deficiency', 'special needs', 'borderline line special needs', and so forth.

The 'take home' points for inclusion in the classroom would be primarily the endeavor to respect each and every student as an individual and to look past the labels. I believe that the use of diagnostic labels are potentially stigmatizing to students locking student in an, oftentimes, undeserved categorization that impedes the teacher from seeing him as a complex, remarkably rounded individual who has tremendous potential. The label…… [Read More]

Sources

Bateman, Barbara D. (1994). Who, How, and Where: Special Education's Issues in Perpetuity. The Journal of Special Education 27, 509-520.

Dorn, S., Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (1996). A Historical Perspective on Special Education Reform. Theory into Practice 35, 12-19.

Kauffman, J.M. (1981). Historical Trends and Contemporary Issues in Special Education in the United States. In Handbook of Special Education, ed. James M. Kauffman and Daniel P. Hallahan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Winzer, Margaret a. (1993). History of Special Education from Isolation to Integration. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
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Special Education Experiences More Inclusive

Words: 2087 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87003286

" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).

About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.

Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.

EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum

Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from  http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/curriculum/steps.html .
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Special Education in Miami Dade

Words: 4705 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51285949

Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?

Technology is an integral part of society. People share and communicate ideas using emails, Skype, and public/private forums. For numerous organizations and businesses technology is a must to increase productivity. This is why schools have begun the process of creating an environment that immerses staff and students in technology, with school administrators taking on the technological transition (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Tarae Terry: Citation? How do we know this is true? Who is the source-Also the opening/introduction needs to be a little bit stronger an attention grabber. Introducing the issue up front is…… [Read More]

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Inclusion Special Education

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98746918

Inclusive Classrooms

Inclusion, Special Education

Inclusive Classrooms -- How Literature Helps… [Read More]

References

Making meaning in Literature: A Workshop for Teachers, Grade 6-8 -- Workshop 5: Student Diversity. (2011). Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Annenberg Learner:  http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1832
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Special Education Inclusion

Words: 8710 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43314572

country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…… [Read More]

References

Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates.

Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.

Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
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Inclusion Has Long Been a

Words: 2760 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92334531

It can be used to establish language dominance, to determine whether a student is performing at grade level in academic subjects in his native language, and to distinguish whether or not a student's weaknesses are due to limited English proficiency or to a specific learning disability. The test has the following sections: 1) eadiness; 2) Speech; 3) Functional Word ecognition; 4) Oral eading; 5) eading Comprehension; 6) Word Analysis; 7) Listening; 8) Writing and Alphabetizing; 9) Numbers and Computation; and 10) Measurement. Not all parts of the test are administered to every student because the teacher/test administrator is encouraged to check off skills that she knows the student has mastered (Brigance Diagnostic Assessment of Basic Skills).

Obstacles Associated with the research

As it relates to conducting and carrying out the aforementioned research there are certain potential obstacles that exist. The first of which has to do with receiving the appropriate…… [Read More]

References

Brigance Diagnostic Assessment of Basic Skills. http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/databases/EAC/EAC0056.htm

Lombardi, T.P. (Ed.). (1999). Policy and Practice. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Odom S.L. (2000) Preschool Inclusion: What We Know and Where We Go from Here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. Volume: 20 (1). Pg. 20.

Snyder, R.F. (1999). INCLUSION: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INSERVlCE GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS' ATTITUDES AND CONCERNS. Education, 120(1), 173..
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Special Education Teachers Analysis Scope

Words: 14451 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74299083



This qualitative research uses a Delphi study to explore the perceptions of special education teachers regarding retention. This Delphi study includes twenty-five to thirty special education teachers of K-12 in two California districts of less than 40,000 students. The information gathered provides leaders in the field with successful practices in retaining special education teachers.

Purpose of the study

The primary purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of special education teachers regarding the factors that influence their decisions to stay with a specific job placement or school community and develop recommendations for increasing teacher retention by developing more supportive school policies and practices. The study will employ the Delphi method to systematically survey special education teachers and develop an informed opinion about teacher retention by reviewing and distilling teacher input through several rounds of review. This survey of special education professionals can provide policymakers at all levels with…… [Read More]

References

Allard, J., Chubbuck, S.M., Clift, R.T., & Quinlan, J. (2001). Playing it safe as a novice teacher: Implications for programs for new teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 52(5), 365.

Arnold, M. & Mitchell, a. (2004). Behavior management skills as predictors of retention among South Texas special educators. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(3), 214.

Colucci, K. & Epanchin, B.C. (2002). The professional development school without walls: A partnership between a university and two school districts. Remedial and Special Education, 23(6), 349.

Cooper-Duffy, K., Herzog, M.J., Prohn, K., Ray, M., & Westling, D.L. (2006). The teacher support program: A proposed resource for the special education profession and an initial validation. Remedial and Special Education, 27(3), 136.
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Special Education and Ways to Improve Teaching Methods

Words: 2196 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74841504

Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Violations as they Pertain to the Case of Sonya

An educational institution's principal greatly influences the learning/teaching of every student within the school, for better or for worse. Studies have found that principals' approach to their post, and its eventual effect on enrolled pupils, is dependent upon their style of leadership. Some styles prove to have more benefits for pupils than others. An especially vulnerable student group is students with special education needs. They are, in fact, so susceptible that regulations are made for their protection, designed specially to look after their education. Such laws foster collaboration, inclusive planning, and shared leadership-- leadership traits that have been proven as having the most favorable impact on all students' outcomes (Schulze, 2014).

The school administrator's role as an educational leader has an extensive history. Currently, however, the significance of this particular role is greater than ever…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boscardian, M. L. (2011). Exploring the Relationship Between Special Education Teachers and Professional Learning Communities. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 62.

Case Studies in Special Education Law: No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Case 2.2 "Sonya" pages 30-32 only) (1st Edition)

Diliberto J. A., Brewer D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP Meetings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44,30-37

Harrison, D. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Special Needs Students Virtually. The Journal.
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Special Education Instruction Options

Words: 3326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50533985

life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.

Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can help in the creation and the use of technical means with constant interrelation to life,…… [Read More]

References

Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-997

Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9332-y

Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.

Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264341102600406
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Special Education and Technology Integration Essay

Words: 3558 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

This free 11-pageessay(with 15 sources)on Special Education and Technology is for students to use as a template/guideline/reference in helping them complete their own paper. This was provided by a student who completed this essay and wanted others to benefit from it with their own studies. If you seek further assistance on how to write an essay, you can email or call us at anytime.
Technology andSpecial Education
Technology is an important aspect of today's society. People share ideas and communicate using emails, Skype, and public/private forums. In order to for many organizations and businesses to evolve and increase productivity, they often upgrade their technological capabilities. This is why schools have begun the process of creating an environment that immerses staff and students in technology. Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and…… [Read More]

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Special Education Instruction Options

Words: 8307 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74835600

Technology & Education

There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.

Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…… [Read More]

References

Boonmoh, A. (2012). E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries for Writing. Lexikos, 22 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.5788/22-1-997

Chen, N. & Hwang, G. (2014). Transforming the classrooms: innovative digital game-based learning designs and applications. Education Tech Research Dev, 62 (2), 125-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9332-y

Davis, H. (2012). Technology in the Classroom: A Deweyan Perspective. Kentucky Journal Of Higher Education Policy And Practice, Vol. 1(2), 10-12.

Floyd, K. (2011). Book and Software Review: Assistive Technology: Access for All Students. Journal Of Special Education Technology, 26 (4), 64-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016264341102600406
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Increasing Number of Students in Special Education

Words: 10876 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30150873

Special Education

Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.

The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…… [Read More]

References

Digest of Education Statistics. (2001) U.S. Department of Education.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001314786

Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Presidents Commision on Revitalizing Special Education. 2002. United States Department of Education. Retrieved May 28, 2003, from.  http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/assessment/Pres_Rep.pdf
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Teaching Special Education Students in the Classroom

Words: 1246 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12819085

Teaching Special Education Students

In the classroom, teachers are primarily responsible for ensuring that special education students are provided with equal opportunities for education. While instructors should not lower academic standards in the classroom, they should make every effort to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. y making simple adjustments, such as allowing students to record lectures or changing the format of a test, teachers can make sure that special education students do not have academic or social disadvantages.

Setting up the Classroom

In the classroom, simple changes can make a great difference for special education students. For example, by arranging desks in a manner where each student has his own personal space, as opposed to sitting in groups, special education students have less chances of being distracted.

There should be various centers in the class that provide a space for students to go when they are finished with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Klinger, J., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students' perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children.

Polloway, E., Bursuck, W., Jayanthi, M., Epstein, M., & Nelson, J. (1996). Treatment acceptability: Determining appropriate interventions within inclusive classrooms. Intervention In School and Clinic.

Brattlan, Lee. (2002) Brief Reference of Student Disabilities:...with Strategies for the Classroom.
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An indepth analysis of Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum

Words: 9575 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48996400

Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects

This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…… [Read More]

References

Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/

Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.

Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
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Avoiding Bias in Special Education

Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48058736

Conversely, where special-needs students are included in classrooms based exclusively on their high learning capacity despite non-learning-related disabilities that should preclude them from inclusion in standard educational programming, there are detrimental consequences for special-needs students as well as their classmates (SEDL, 2010).

Ultimately, it is up to the educator responsible for conducting assessments to understand the relative significance of individual elements of mental retardation. In principle, this understanding enables them to avoid exclusion where inclusion would be more beneficial to all parties and to avoid exclusion where inclusion of special-needs students is more appropriate.

eferences

FDDS. (2002). Inclusion White Paper Funded by the Florida Developmental Disabilities

Council and Florida State University Center for Prevention & Early Intervention

Policy.

Polloway EA, Patton J, Smith TE, and Buck GH. "Mental etardation and Learning

Disabilities: Conceptual and Applied Issues." Journal of Learning Disabilities

Vol. 30 (1997): 297.

SEDL. (2010). Inclusion: "The Pros and…… [Read More]

References

FDDS. (2002). Inclusion White Paper Funded by the Florida Developmental Disabilities

Council and Florida State University Center for Prevention & Early Intervention

Policy.

Polloway EA, Patton JR, Smith TE, and Buck GH. "Mental Retardation and Learning
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Specail Education and Inclusion One

Words: 875 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51653067

The compounded pressures unique to inexperienced special educators have also been noted by osenberg, O'Shea, and O'Shea (1998). (Stempien & Loeb, 2002, p. 258)

Many experts feel that the issue of attrition is probably the number one reason why there is a teaching shortage at all and that creating systems that are inclusive of special training, growing professional development continued education programming as well as empowering teachers to be influential in their environment would likely greatly help the circumstances.

The retention of public school teachers has been an issue of continuing concern in education. Some studies reveal that bright college graduates are less likely to enter the teaching profession, and that even if they do, they leave in a short period of time (Murnane, Singer, Willett, Kemple, & Olsen, 1991; Schlechty & Vance, 1981). This phenomenon causes concerns about the quality of the teaching force. In addition to the issue…… [Read More]

References

Inman, D., & Marlow, L. (2004). Teacher Retention: Why Do Beginning Teachers Remain in the Profession?. Education, 124(4), 605.

Katsiyannis, a., Zhang, D., & Conroy, M.A. (2003). Availability of Special Education Teachers: Trends and Issues. Remedial and Special Education, 24(4), 246.

Shen, J. (1997). Teacher Retention and Attrition in Public Schools: Evidence from SASS91. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(2), 81.

Stempien, L.R., & Loeb, R.C. (2002). Differences in Job Satisfaction between General Education and Special Education Teachers: Implications for Retention. Remedial and Special Education, 23(5), 258.
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Why Are There'so Many Black Males in Special Education

Words: 4033 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41809351

mixed research solution to help explain just why there are so many black males in special education. The researcher supported the research questions by utilizing article, journals, observational researches, and statistical data to greatly assisted in demonstrating the final resulst of the study. The articles and journals can give a reason of the quantitative variables - for example learning styles, referral process; I.Q. testing, cultural diversity, insufficient early intervention plan, and poverty are influential in the classification of young black males as special education candidates. Participants who will remain active in the research will undoubtedly be students who range from grades K-12. Statistical data is going to be used to exhibit how African-American males signify nearly all students in the special education structure understanding the fact that they're half the normal commission of the student populace. The information will exhibit how African-American males are plagued with racial inequality and racially…… [Read More]

References

Archibald, S. (2006). Narrowing in on educational resources that do affect student achievement. Peabody Journal of Education, 81(4), 23-42.

Bouma, G.D., Ling, R. And Wilkinson, L. (2009). The research process. Canadian Edition. Canada: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, L. Manion, L. And Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education. 6th Ed. Routledge Falmer. London.

Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. And Jackson, P.R. (2011). Management Research. 3rd Ed. London: Sage.
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Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of…… [Read More]

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Developing a Personal Philosophy of Inclusion for Young Children Special Education

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7677535

Belief Statement

Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Inclusion For Young Children, Special Education

Inclusion: Early childhood education

Belief statements

I believe that every child has a right to an education. This education must be adapted to every child's individual needs. These needs encompass a wide range of biological, sociological, and psychological differences. Although every child is entitled to an equal education, giving every child the same education is not the same thing as equality. For a child who is blind, it is necessary that the child have access to a talking book or Braille to enable him or her to comprehend the same material as his or her peers. Similarly, a child who is dyslexic or has a sensory processing disorder requires additional support to keep up with other students.

I believe that teachers must be flexible when dealing with children. Teaching is more than simply writing out a lesson…… [Read More]

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Use of technology in the'special education classroom

Words: 3364 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30650175

Chapter 1: Introduction
The epigraph above is reflective of the views of many special educational needs teachers. Indeed, innovations in technology in recent decades have created a wide array of new opportunities for helping special needs student achieve their full academic potential. These trends are especially noteworthy today because tens of millions of young American learners are struggling with their academic pursuits due to their special educational needs. In this context, the term “special educational needs” can be defined as “children who have learning problems or disabilities that make it harder for them to learn than most children of the same age” (Special education needs, 2018, para. 2). The purpose of this grant proposal was to identify ways that special educational needs students can benefit from the introduction of technology in their classrooms based on the problem statement described below.
Statement of the Problem
According to the most recent estimates…… [Read More]

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Analysis of Inclusion in Special Education Curriculum

Words: 2205 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45085666

inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).

Inclusion

The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in Education. Children with Disabiliity Australia.

Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism. Council for Exceptional Children.

Evers, T. (2011). Common Core State Standards for Literacy in all subjects. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Intrusion.

FDDC. (2012). What is Inclusion? Florida: Florida State Univeristy Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy.
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Culturally Sensitive Special Education

Words: 2682 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86248730

education and the usual plight of special education students, both identified and yet-to-be identified, the role of the educational diagnostician is one of great import and significance. Known by several different names, the educational diagnostician is charged with the diagnosing and identification of leaning problems. The focus of this report will be the work of the educational diagnostician in the elementary school system and framework. In addition to the educational diagnostician himself or herself, there is also the involvement and partnership of other employees in the elementary school framework including teachers at the elementary school and other school employees such as counselors and administrators. While some may hold that the role of the educational diagnostician is not all that complicated, this could not be further from the truth as the identification of problems as well as dealing with and working with the same alongside other school employees, the parents of…… [Read More]

References

Aceves, T. C. (2014). Supporting Latino Families in Special Education through Community

Agency-School Partnerships. Multicultural Education, 21(3-4), 45-50.

Caputo, A., & Langher, V. (2015). Validation of the Collaboration and Support for Inclusive

Teaching Scale in Special Education Teachers. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment,
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Special Ed Philosophy a Special

Words: 1433 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13632993

Gerl (2010) points out in his advocacy of metaphysics as a way of approaching the philosophy of special education that this helps to construct a legal perspective which is evolving in a way that is consistent with the evolution of ethical perspectives of human dignity, individual rights and the treatment of those with disabilities. hile this strikes as relevant, Gerl even concedes that one may not be suited for the metaphysical philosophy of special education law "if a lack of ambiguity appeals to you." Indeed, in a sense, traditional civil rights case law in combination with the ideals delivered by an axiology discourse should serve to effectively address the need for the evolution in ethical perspective. And quite simply stated, the philosophical underpinnings of Logic are problemetized in the educational context by the sheer force and divergence of opposing political, ideological and economic priorities. Therefore, the idea of constructing logical…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gerl, J. (2010). The Metaphysics of Special Education Law. Special Education Today.

Gordon, M. (1994). Toward a Complete Axiology of Classroom Practice. Boston University.

Kozleski, E. (2005). Logic Model for Whole School Educational Reform. National Institute for Urban School Improvement.

Silverman, J.C. (2007). Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 42-51.
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Special Ed Since the 1990s

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21479184



Personal Beliefs

Our personal beliefs are that showing educators and parents' specific tactics to use when interacting with special needs students will improve their ability to learn. In the future, this will prepare them for the challenges they will face on their own. Once this happens, is when the student has a good chance of living an independent and productive life.

Literature

To determine what technique are most effective in reaching out to students requires conducting a literature review. According to the research that was conducted, there are specific skills and tools required to help special needs students. Buell (1999) found that the federal government has implemented a comprehensive program in teaching educators about how to deal with these challenges called the Comprehensive System of Personal Development. This protocol is scientifically-based math and reading strategies to improve learning comprehension in these students. When this is used in its proper context,…… [Read More]

References

Buell, M. (1999). A Survey of General and Special Education Teachers. International Journal of Disability, 46 (2),

143 -- 156.

Ingersoll, B. (2006). Including Parent Training in the Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum for Children

with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 79-87.
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Inclusion Over the Past Few

Words: 2832 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45941239

Seeking support before a program is put into place is crucial, as it is this network of support that will serve to assist in solving the problems that will

6

inevitably arise.

The second common roadblock is inadequate planning and scheduling for inclusion. Planning and scheduling should not only occur at the local level, but at the district level as well (orrell 53). Often, the entire organizational structure of a district needs to be examined and revamped for an inclusion program to succeed (Stainback 144). Making certain that there is not an "overload" of special education students within one general education classroom takes much planning and effort on the part of teachers and counselors. Planning also includes making certain that special education students are provided with all appropriate services that they would have received had they not been placed in the inclusion classroom setting (orrell 53). This not only includes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, David W. "Inclusion and Interdependence: Students with Special Needs in the Regular Classroom." Journal of Education & Christian Belief 10.1 (2006): 43-59. Print.

Carr, Margaret N. "A Mother's Thoughts on Inclusion." Journal of Learning Disabilities 26.9 (1993): 590-592. Print.

Connor, David J., and Beth a. Ferri. "The Conflict Within: Resistance to Inclusion and other Paradoxes in Special Education." Disability & Society 22.1 (2007): 63-77. Print.

Leyser, Yona, and Rea Kirk. "Evaluating Inclusion: An Examination of Parent Views and Factors Influencing their Perspectives." International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51.3 (2004): 271-285. Print.
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Education in China History of

Words: 1683 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36246897

The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.

Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…… [Read More]

References:

Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,

from  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/7098561.stm 

Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.

Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
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Inclusion in the UK and

Words: 4031 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17053991

..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:

(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."

(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."

(3) Article no. 133 states "The…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml

Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.

Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.

Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
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Inclusion Behavioral Approaches for Inclusion Students With

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15226041

Inclusion

EHAVIORAL APPROACHES FOR INCLUSION

Students with emotional or behavioral problems face serious hurdles both in school and when their education has ended. Few receive services outside the school, making school the only place they receive any help (Mannella et. al., 2002). In recent years, professionals have devised better ways for dealing with these students (Childs et. al., 2001). The approaches include inclusion in regular settings instead of isolating the students in special settings whenever possible, using tools such as functional behavioral analyses (FA), and using the results of behavioral analyses to plan positive educational and behavioral interventions.

One problem with using inclusion with any kind of student, but especially students with emotional or behavioral disorders, is that schools often think they're using inclusion when they are not. Some schools have claimed to be using inclusion when all special-needs students remained in special classes (Mamlin, 1999). In one case, students…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Cynthia M., Proctor, Briley; and Shriver, Mark D. 2001. "Evaluating the Validity of Functional Behavior Assessment." School Psychology Review Vol. 30.

Bustamante, Selina; Harrower, Joshua K.; Kincaid, Donald; Knoster, Tim; and Shannon, Patrick. 2002. "Measuring the Impact of Positive Behavior Support." Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, Vol. 4.

Childs, Karen; Clarke, Shelly; Delaney, Beth; Dunlap, Glen; and Kern, Lee. 2001. "Improving the Classroom Behavior of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Using Individualized Curricular Modifications."

Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Vol. 9.
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Inclusion in Secondary Schools Public

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91931119

In particular, they note that classroom and subject area teachers are not trained to develop and implement instructional programs for children who fall outside the "average" range of abilities. They note further that teacher preparation programs do not normally provide training in adapting curriculum for low-performing and low-skilled students or dealing with the often difficult and extreme behaviors of emotionally disturbed children. Others critics maintain that many disabled students need to learn functional life-skills or basic academic skills far more than concepts and information -- the focus of most general education curricula (Hasbrouck, 2007).

Implications for Future Teaching

The foregoing has implications for training future teachers and providing staff development for current teachers. Huston (2007) recommended that areas to be emphasized in teacher training and staff development include: (a) emphasis on higher-order thinking skills, (b) integrated curricula, (c) life-skills curricula, and (d) interdisciplinary teaching.

Huston (2007) further recommended that, in…… [Read More]

References

Hasbrouck, J. (2007). Inclusive classrooms. In J. Kagan, J & S. Gall (Eds.), the Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. Online edition. Detroit: Gale.

Huston, J. (2007). Special education inclusion. Retrieved 5/12/2010 from http://www.weac.org/Issues_Advocacy/Resource_On_Issues_one/Special_

Education/special_education_inclusion.aspx

Walker, K. (2004). Research Brief: Inclusion models for students in special education .Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www.principalspartnership.com.
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Inclusion Research Daniel L G &

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14219064



Methods Section

This research used a quasi-experimental design for third through fifth-grade students from 12 intact classrooms. There were 207 students in the study, which eliminated the possibility of the random assignments of participants. Students were examined in three groups: 68 students were in Group 1 from four noninclusion classrooms; 34 students were in Group 2 from two clustered inclusion classrooms; and 105 students were in Group 3 from six random inclusion classrooms.

Six variables were defined: 1) parental concerns; 2) teacher and parent-reported instances of problem behaviors on the part of students; 3) the academic performance of the students; 4) and student self-reported self-esteem. The researchers used three standardized instruments to measure the variables of interest, these being the CBCL, SEI, and SAT (mathematics, reading, spelling, and language subscales. The researchers also used their own parent concern questionnaire. The researchers explain each of the tests and what each measures…… [Read More]

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Special Needs Paraprofessional Supervisor Inclusion

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31874455



Suter, J., & M. Giangreco. 2009). Numbers that count: Exploring special education and paraprofessional service delivery in inclusion-oriented schools. The Journal of Special

Education, 432), 81-93. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Research Library.

Document ID: 1785064241).

This study of paraprofessionals in special education programs notes how paraprofessionals often provide the bulk of student services, given the overburdened nature of the special education system. The authors raise their concerns that paraprofessionals are not fully qualified to give a comprehensive education to students with disabilities. There is a lack of certified teachers in the discipline of special education. This remains problematic, even though paraprofessionals often do interact with their students on a one-to-one basis.

Inclusion:

Koralek, D. 2009). Supporting all kinds of learners. YC Young Children, 642), 10-11.

Retrieved September 3, 2009, from ProQuest Education Journals. Document ID: 1673585101).

The author suggests that before a student with special needs joins a mainstream…… [Read More]

(Document ID: 939465421).

This article advocates the mainstreaming of special needs students. It stresses how children without disabilities in an elementary school setting can act as peer counselors and support special need students in a way that facilitates the education of both types of pupils.

Rix, J., K. Hall, M. Nind, K. Sheehy & J. Wearmouth. (2009). What pedagogical approaches can
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Special Needs Transition Intervening to Place Children

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98323143

Special Needs Transition

Intervening to place children towards their appropriate levels of schooling is very important and requires certain and descriptive analysis. As a result of these changes, coping mechanisms are developed for the children that present new and different challenges for the both the educators and the parents and family of the child in question. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the factors involved that would promote or hamper a successful transition dealing with a child who has been learning in a center-based program to a more advanced program within an inclusion kindergarten program. I will additionally explore what factors are necessary for the likelihood of successful adjustment within the changing scenario.

Dunlap (2009) highlighted the legal necessities of a such a transition. He noted " transitions often involve major changes in routines. Federal laws ( in particular, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [ IDEA]) mandate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, R.E., Klein, M.D. & Chen, D. (2012) Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs. 8th Ed. Boston, Mass: Pearson

p. 124 -125

Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education.

NJ: Pearson. (ISBN: 978-0-205-48872-8) .
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Education Multiculturalism in Education Creating

Words: 3181 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9234016

A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…… [Read More]

References http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006473326

Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001019515

Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001505447
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Special Ed Learning Disabilities Chart

Words: 696 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90030934

Specifically, the parents want their son's teachers to help him not only learn, but to be able to receive instruction from others. So far, they are fairly pleased with the progress that they have seen their son make in the classroom, but wish the teachers could develop more large-group activities and take the time to really make sure their son was a full participant, which they feel would help him to progress socially more than the often individualized instruction he receives.

The difficulty, they acknowledge, is that individualized instruction is how he learns best, and with a class the size of his they understand that the teachers couldn't focus their attention on him during a large group project. Still, they are hopeful that new ideas might come up that will improve his situation even more, and they continue to work closely with the teachers regarding his progress.

eferences

LDA. (209).…… [Read More]

References

LDA. (209). Learning disabilities association of America. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ldanatl.org/

WV Dept. Of Education. 92009). "Schools of Brooke County." Accessed 2 October 2009.  http://wvde.state.wv.us/ed_directory/index.html?county_id=10 

Sheet1

Disorder / impairment Characetristics Teaching Strategy Example
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Special Cultural Inequities for Special

Words: 2208 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25332614

Doyle ( 2003) states that the educator has an obligation to identify and provide adequate attention to those with special needs and at the same time not deal with these children in a prejudicial way.

Doyle uses the example of students who may have autism, which is a disorder related to special learning need. In order to reduce the possibility of any bias and prejudice the following steps are advised, among others.

It is of the utmost importance to identify and support students in the autism spectrum and students with other special learning needs as early as possible. Do not allow children who may have special needs to go from one grade to another without a professional team assessing the student for eligibility for services and supports. "Waiting" is NOT an effective, educational practice. Although the process of referral can be cumbersome, it is well worth it when it identifies…… [Read More]

References

Campbell F. ( 2008) Refusing Able (ness): A Preliminary Conversation about

Ableism. M/C Journal, 11(3). Retrieved from  http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/46 

Cheng D. (2010) Prejudice top obstacle for special needs pupils: Hide. Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10681999

Coutinho, M.J., & Repp, A.C. (1999). Inclusion: The integration of students with disabilities. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
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Education Literature Review Whenever the Disturbing News

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51458282

Education Literature eview

Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…… [Read More]

References

Cuero, K.K., & Crim, C.L. (2008). You Wish It Could Speak for Itself. Issues in Teacher

Education, 17, 117-140. Retrieved from www.eric.edu.gov.

Eipstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior

Problems in the Elementary School Classroom. IES Practice Guide. What Works
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Inclusion Effect of Positive Peer

Words: 1448 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93103712

e. part-time or full time special classes or alternative day schools. (Crowell, et al., 2005)

VII. Various Strategies Required in Meeting Needs of All Students

The work of Parker (2009) entitled "Inclusion Strategies in the Visual Arts Classroom" states that all educators "…need to be aware of different strategies that can be used to meet the needs of all students. Depending on the disability, teachers can apply these strategies in their classrooms and instruction, no matter the subject area."

Parker goes on to state that educators must be aware of the following facts concerning the various types of disorders of special needs students: (1) auditory processing disorders; (2) visual processing disorders; (3) Organizational skills; and (4) social and behavioral skills. (Parker, 2009)

The work of Juncaj, Knapp, and Smith (2009) entitled "Inclusion of Special Education Students in the General Education Setting" states that those who support the inclusion movement suggest…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Crowell, Amanda, et al. (2005) Special Education: Inclusion vs. Exclusion. Scott County High School. Online available at: www.otis.coe.uky.edu/.../getfile.php?...MICfinalgroupprojectspecialeducation.

Dennis, Sharman Word (2010) Inclusion and Mainstreaming -- They Should Work, but Do They? Internet Special Education Resources. Online available at:  http://www.iser.com/resources/21st-sped.html 

Juncaj, Blair, Knapp, Allison, and Smith, Kristen (2009) Inclusion of Special Education Students in the General Education Setting. 9 Apr 2009. Online available at: http://www.drchrustowski.com/InclusionPaper2009.pdf

Katz, Jennifer and Mirenda, Pat (2002) Including Students with Developmental Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: Educational Benefits. International Journal of Special Education. Vol. 17, No. 2. 2002.
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Inclusion Educators Talk About Inclusion

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98143809

A wrap-around approach emphasizes solving the child's problems within his natural environment.

Levy and Washington (in Lombardi's book) emphasize that collaboration is essential. They describe a school in rooklyn that has made true collaboration between special education staff and general education staff a priority, blocking out time for staff to communicate with each other. They have also broadened their definition of communication, realizing that sometimes people will not be able to meet face-to-face, using phones and email to augment communication.

Fred West, in the same book, looks at the issue of the instructional decisions that must be made for successful inclusion. Full inclusion means the same education other children get to the fullest extent possible. This means that children with emotional or behavioral problems are students with diagnoses. Their needs are exceptional and will require that their instruction be carefully considered. West suggests systematic analysis regarding the academic support needed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lombardi, Thomas P., Ed. Inclusion: Policy and Practice. Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, 1999.

Stahl, Joe. "Inclusion: What Can Teachers Do?" Academic Exchange Quarterly; September.

Textbook
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Inclusion for Children With Autism

Words: 2883 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93312546



There is a growing body of support that indicates that while inclusion may be the best answer for mildly autistic children, it may not be the best setting for those with moderate to severe autism. Until now, research into the autistic child in the classroom has focused on taking the position of either for or against inclusion in the general classroom. However, when one takes the body of literature as a whole, it appears that inclusion is good for some and bad for others. This leads to the logical conclusion that differences exist between children who are successful under inclusion and those that are not. Understanding these differences is the key to taking the proper action for an individual.

Literature regarding autism and inclusion missed the important point that in order to make the program a success, we must decode the keys to success. One of these keys lies in…… [Read More]

References

Dybvik, a (2004). Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms? Daniel knows. Education Next. Winter 2004. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJG/is_1_4/ai_111734750

Fighting Autism (2003). Autism Prevalence Reports, School Years 1992-2003. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://www.fightingautism.org/idea/autism-prevalence-report.php

Horrocks, J., White, G., & Roberts, L. (2008). Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools. J Autism Dev Disord. 38(8):1462- 73.

Humphrey, N. & Lewis, S. (2008). Make me normal': the views and experiences of pupils on the autistic spectrum in mainstream secondary schools. Autism. 2008 Jan;12(1):23-46.
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Inclusion of Students Diagnosed With

Words: 1470 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87036536



The academic and behavioral challenges presented by students with EBD affect the nature of their interactions with their teachers. Aggressive behavior patterns increase the likelihood that children will develop negative relationships with their teachers. Indeed, problematic relationships in kindergarten between students with behavior problems and teachers are associated with academic and behavioral problems through eighth grade. Henricsson and ydell (2004) report that poor teacher -- student relationships tend to be stable over time and have a negative effect on school adjustment. These problematic relationships with teachers may contribute to the documented low rates of positive teacher attention, such as academic interactions and teacher praise in classrooms for students with EBD. Teacher -- student interactions in classrooms for students with EBD have been described both in terms of negative reinforcement and as reflecting the transactional nature of social interchanges.

Students with and at risk for developing EBD are uniquely influenced by…… [Read More]

References

Cooley, E, L., Triemer & D.M. (2002, December) Classroom behavior and the ability to decode nonverbal cues in boys with severe emotional disturbance. Journal of social psychology. Vol. 142, Issue 6, 741-751. Retrieved November 19, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=8&hid=24&sid=ccc23da9-1464-47f4-b788-49f04f0a8baf%40sessionmgr14

Henricsson, L. & Rydell, A. (2004, April) Elementary scholl children with behavior problems: Teacher-child relationns and elf-perception. A prospective study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Vol. 50, Issue 2, 111-138. Retrieved November 19, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=24&sid=ccc23da9-1464-47f4-b788-49f04f0a8baf%40sessionmgr14

Lewis, T.J., Jones, S.E.L., Horner, R.H. & Sugai, G. (2010, April - June) School-wide positive behavior support and students with emotional/behavioral disorders: Implications for prevention, identification, and intervention. Exceptionality. Vol. 18, Issue 2, 82-93. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=24&sid=ccc23da9-1464-47f4-b788-49f04f0a8baf%40sessionmgr14

Solar, E. (2011, September/October). Prove them wrong. Teaching exceptional children. Vol. 44, Issue 1, 40-45. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=ccc23da9-1464-47f4-b788-49f04f0a8baf%40sessionmgr14&vid=5&hid=24
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Inclusion Those in Favor of

Words: 2268 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73008527

Of course, this study was conducted twenty years ago, and the inclusion movement has advanced considerably. Today, students are actually integrated into the classroom and also have the assistance of special education teachers present in the mainstream classroom. They also are more inclined to experience full inclusion instead of partial inclusion.

Tarver-Behring, Spagna & Sullivan (1998) define full inclusion as "the existence of only one unified educational system from the beginning of formal education, encompassing all members equitably, without regard for variations in their status" (p. 52). Hanson et. al. (2001) compared the experiences of special needs students transitioning from preschool to kindergarten, some of whom experienced partial inclusion, and some of whom experienced full inclusion. After studying these children for a period of five years, the researchers found that the greatest influence on their success was the level of support of the parents and teachers. When there was an…… [Read More]

References

Antoinette, M.L. (2003) Examining how the inclusion of disabled students into the general classroom may affect non-disabled classmates, Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30, (6) 2039-2049

Charles, C.M. And Senter, G.W (2002) Elementary classroom management (3rd ed), Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon

Idol, L. (2006) Toward inclusion of special education students in general. Education: a program evaluation of eight schools. Remedial and Special. Education, 27(2), 77-94.

Jorgenson, C.M., Schuh, M.C. & Nisbet, J.A. (2005) the Inclusion Facilitator's Guide. Brookes Publishing Company.
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Inclusion Which Calls for Integration of Students

Words: 1385 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46701312

inclusion, which calls for integration of students with disabilities to the regular classroom/education system in the United States. Specifically, it will provide arguments in favor of using full inclusion in the classroom. hat's so special about special education? The children and what they can learn from educational experiences with their peers, that's what's special. Including special education students in the classroom benefits everyone, from the teachers, to the students, to the parents.

FULL INCLUSION

The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142) first discussed the issue of full inclusion of students with disabilities in 1975. The act guaranteed "free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment" for all children with disabilities. In 1991, the act was amended and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). However, the act did not mandate full inclusion, and the courts have ruled on several different conceptions of the Act and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crockett, Jean B. "Viable Alternatives for Students with Disabilities: Exploring the Origins and Interpretations of LRE." Exceptionality 8.1 (1999): 43-60.

Crockett, Jean B., and James M. Kauffman. The Least Restrictive Environment: Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.

Kozleski, Elizabeth B., and Lewis Jackson. "Taylor's Story: Full Inclusion in Her Neighborhood Elementary School." Exceptionality 4.3 (1993): 153-175.

Steele-Carlin, Sherril. "Assistive Devices Help Challenged Kids Get the Most from Learning." EducationWorld.com. 1 June 2001. 15 Oct. 2002. http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech086.shtml
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Inclusion on Autistic Children the Inclusion of

Words: 2136 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55360248

Inclusion on Autistic Children

The inclusion of autistic children raises some important questions concerning the effects of inclusion, not only on the autistic child, but also on the entire classroom. Children with autistic spectrum disorders ranging from Kanners syndrome to Ausbergers Syndrome sometimes find external stimulation to be excruciating. e must then question the logic of placing them in an environment where their bodies must constantly result to the defensive behaviors, so characteristic in autistic children. e must question whether treating them like everyone else will make them healthy, happy adults, or will they have sacrificed a special education tailored to their needs in order to satisfy social trends of today? ould inclusion be beneficial to the mildly effected? hat are the effects of inclusion on the children in the classroom without special needs? Another important question is the measurement of our progress. Do we use improvement in grades, or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gray, Peter (2002) Rethinking Support for Inclusive Schools. Dfee/Nasen supported research in progress. National Association for Special Needs (NASEN) http://www.nasen.org.uk/reports/01 / Accessed February 2002.

Simpson, Ian (2001) Support for Inclusive Schooling. Hummersknott School -- S.E.N.- Effective Inclusion.

http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/beaconschools/hummersk/987687326 / accessed February, 2002.

National Autistic Society (2001) Inclusion and autism: is it working? www.nas.org.uk accessed February 2002.
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Education Provision in England and

Words: 1418 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34958396

" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)

III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS

The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chan, Sui-Mee; East, Pat, Ali, Sabia; and Neophytou, Maria (2002) Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales: From 1944 to the Present Day - 8th Edition. August 2002.

Lopez-Muniz, Jose Luis Martinez; De Groof, Jan; and Lauwers, Gracienne (2006) Religious Education and Collective Worship in State Schools: England and Wales" published in the Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law - Yearbook of the Association for Education and Policy (2006)

M.A. Eckstein, "Present Trends in Public Secondary Education in Western Europe," the High School Journal, 44 (October, 1960): 8-19. Reprinted by permission of the University of North Carolina Press.

Riddell S. & Salisbury J., (2000) ' Introductions: educational reforms and equal opportunities programmes', in Salisbury J & Riddell S., (eds.) Gender, Policy & Educational Change: shifting agendas in the UK and Europe, London, Routledge
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Education Factors Relating to the

Words: 5961 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66368684

According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:

There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)

As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000952855

Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.

Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104861000
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Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special

Words: 4423 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67221345

Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.

Stratification.

Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.

Literature eview

Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.

According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]

References

Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.

Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from  http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280 

Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.

Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
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Problems Facing K-12 Education Nationally

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6140722

promotion of more inclusive education. Up until recently, the practice of separating students with special education needs from general education students was commonplace. However, this practice often resulted in special education students not having access to the same caliber and quality of education as general students. This was recognized by the United Nations Convention on the ights of Persons with Disabilities, which recently published reports and recommendations, demonstrating the merit and value of inclusive education for students with different needs and abilities at all levels (Ernest et al., 2011). Furthermore, the importance of identifying students with special needs early in order to provide appropriate education was suggested through research by Buffum et al. (2010). This is described as the premise underlying esponse to Intervention (TI), and differentiated instruction may be effectively used to provide special needs students with appropriate access to curriculum and support (Buffum et al., 2010).

There has…… [Read More]

References

Buffum, A., Mattos, M., Weber, C. (2010). The why behind RTI. Educational Leadership, 68(2), 10-16.

Ernest, J.M., Heckaman, K.A., Thompson, S.E., Hull, K.M., Carter, S. (2011). Increasing the teaching efficacy of a beginning special education teacher using differentiated instruction: a case study. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 191-201.

Fullerton, A., Ruben, B.J., McBride, S., Bert, S. (2011). Evaluation of a merged secondary and special education program. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38(2), 45-60.